Volume 16 Issue 1

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NUML International Journal of Business and Management 
NUML International Journal of Business and Management Title.jpg
Title of NUML International Journal of Business and Management
Double Blind Peer Review
Edited byFaid Gul
Publication details
Faculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages (Pakistani)
Open Access
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN2410-5392 (print)
2521-473X (web)
20 weeks

Nexus of Gold Price-Exchange Rate-Interest Rate-Oil Price: Lessons for Monetary Policy in Pakistan

Author: Akbar, Muhammad, Warda Amjad, Zahid Iqbal
This study aims to evaluate the links among gold price, oil price, exchange rate and interest rate in Pakistan. All these channels are interconnected and have impact on monetary policy of the country. Monthly data ranging from 1995-01 to 2016-12 is used for the analysis based on VAR Model. Exchange rate depreciations are responded by tight monetary policy actions, which seem to have a significant effect on exchange rate stabilization process and raise gold price. Changes in oil prices at global level strongly affect the nexus in Pakistan. Monetary policy managers are suggested to take changes in gold prices as indicators of short-run fluctuations in Pakistan economy. The study contributes in two ways. Firstly, as a case study of Pakistan, it analyzes the role of gold market in response to changes in exchange rate and world oil prices. Secondly, the study links up monetary policy decisions to the nexus of gold price-oil price-exchange rate. Findings of the study may be useful for monetary policy makers, academia, and gold industry alike.

Development and Validation of Extended Multi-Dimensional Scale of Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Context of Pakistan

Author: Sethar, Waqar Ahmed, Adnan Pitafi, Arabella Bhutto
The purpose of this research is to validate the multi-dimensional scale of EntrepreneurialcEcosystem in the context of Pakistan. This research is based on 7 constructs with 54 items that affect the entrepreneurial ecosystem in any given region. The sample of 244 respondents are the owners of companies and, startups who participated in this research.The Confirmatory factory analysis showed factor loadings of all constructs greater than 0.40, while partial least square structural equation modeling showed acceptable values of construct reliability, composite reliability, however, average variance extracted was shown to be greater than 0.40 and less than the acceptable value of 0.5 for some constructs, while the HTMT ratio established discriminant validity of the constructs another criterion i.e. Fornell-Larcker criterion also established the discriminant validity of the constructs with some constructs having values less than 0.705, while some of the item outer loadings were found to be between 0.6-0.70 however, within the acceptable range. This research has validated the multi-dimensional scale of the entrepreneurial ecosystem with new sub-domain i.e. support professions and support finance. This scale can be used to measure the strength of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of any region with appropriate homogeneous sample

Fiscal Decentralization and Gender Parity in Developing Asia

Author: Naeem, Sidra, Mahnaz Muhammad Ali
The traditional fiscal decentralization theorem claims that decentralized government can provide the goods and services at local level more efficiently. However, empirically it is still to explore that how fiscal decentralization affects gender parity. This study empirically investigates the impact of fiscal decentralization on gender parity in developing economies of Asia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Mongolia, Myanmar, Thailand and Turkey. The study used dynamic penal da ta technique namely system GMM over the period of 2006-2020. The multidimensionality of fiscal decentralization is captured through three measures of fiscal decentralization i.e. expenditure decentralization, revenue decentralization and composite decentralization. Further, it also examines the complementarity between fiscal decentralization and control of corruption to increase the gender parity. The results of the analysis show that expenditure decentralization is increasing the gender parity in developing economies of Asia. Additionally, control of corruption is a necessary reform to get the desired fruits of fiscal decentralization. Countries must focus on corruption aspect of local governments in implementing the expenditure, revenue and composite decentralization.

Impact of Marketing Leadership Effectiveness on Change Management in Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

Author: Malik, Fozia, Sania Sarfraz, Madeeha Seemal
The major theme of this paper is exploration of new dimensions of marketing leadership effectiveness. These dimensions are discussed in theoretical perspective but the main contribution of this research is their empirical testing. The four intellects namely business, spiritual, emotional as well as political intelligence of marketing leaders are taken for measuring marketing leadership effectiveness and their impact on change management is analysed. The data was collected from manufacturing sector of Pakistan from the marketing leaders who are involved in the process of change management through purposive sampling technique. The sample size for current study was 200. Reliability of items is checked through Cronbach’s Alpha test. Results of correlation and regression analysis of study found positive and it is concluded that four selected intellects can act as measures of marketing leadership effectiveness which help in managing change successfully in organizations. This research has significant implications for industry experts as they can judge the ability of marketing managers while assigning them leadership role after measuring the four intellects as proposed in this research. For academia point of view, researchers who are interested to measure marketing leadership effectiveness can gain insight from present research.