Volume 53 Issue 2

From Social Sciences & Humanities
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Grassroots Title.jpg
Title of Grassroots
DisciplineSocial Sciences
Blind Peer Review
Edited byShuja Ahmed Mahesar
Publication details
Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh Jamshoro (Pakistan) (Pakistani)
Open Access
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN1726-0396 (print)
2521-456X (web)
24 weeks

Awareness and Accessibility of Right to Information Act: A Comparative Study of Minorities within Pakistan and India

Author: Shaikh, Muhammad Ali, Sana Shahid, Sumera Memon
Right to Information (RTI) has become one of the major laws to strengthen the democracy of a country. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the awareness and accessibility of RTI for minorities in Pakistan and India. In this regard, a survey questionnaire was distributed to the total of 50 Pakistani Hindus and 50 Indian Muslims under snowball sampling method. The findings were analyzed with the help of independent-samples t-test on SPSS. Findings indicate Pakistani Hindus have only 12% awareness and right to access information as compare to Indian Muslims. For the future studies, there is a need to develop awareness of Right to Information specially in Pakistan in order to improve accountability and transparency in the structure of government.

A Quantitative Analysis of Agro-Based Industry in Matiari District, Sindh, Pakistan: A Sociological Perspective

Author: Khowaja, Imdad Ali, Kamleshwer Lohana, Urooj Talpur
Pakistan is the agrarian country and its last economic data shows the growth in the agriculture production. More than 60 percent population is living in rural areas of the country and is engaged with agriculture activities. While the agro based industry is linked with agriculture sector and use agriculture raw material for production of final goods. The agro based industry provides income and employment generation opportunities. Therefore, the agro based industry is beneficial for the economic development of the area. For this study the 384 sample has been selected from the district Matiari and statistical Chi square test result highlights that the agro-based industry is beneficial for the development of the rural area.

A Comparative Study of Employees’ Perception Relating to Performance Appraisal Practices in the Public and Private Banking Sector of Sindh

Author: Kumar, Tahal, Imamuddin Khoso, Noor Muhammad Jamali
Performance appraisal is a key human resource practice and source of a motivation for an employee and its success depends on justice perception of an employee towards performance appraisal system. Pakistani banking sector is playing a vital role in the economic growth of the country. Private Banks are innovative and effective in their approach as compared to the public banks. Past studies have compared the public and private banks and found that new private banks are more effective than public banks in terms of technical and economic efficiency. However, there are meager studies available in the context of justice perception of performance appraisal practices in the public and private banks. Data were collected through five-point Likert scale and analyzed with SPSS 24.0 versions. In the result difference of justice is measured by mean differences and independent sample t-test. However, it is found that employees of private banks perceive greater justice as compared to public banks. This study emphasizes the importance of fairness perception of employees in the context of performance appraisal practices and could be used to better understand the problems associated with appraisal practices in public and private banks.

A New Historicist Analysis of Bina Shah’s Novel a Season for Martyrs

Author: Syed, Tabassum Gul, Ambreen Shahriar
This study is conducted to analyze the novel Bina Shah’ novel A Season for Martyrs, from the perspective of New Historicism. This novel presents history of Sindh blended with fiction. It highlights the main Historical events of Sindh; from the arrival of the British in 1827 and occupation of Sindh by Charles Napier till the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in present century. Shah has narrated the history to show its link with the present political and social situation of Sindh. The novel has focused social and political discourses of Sindhi society such as: Significance of love with the land and people’ faith in mystics. The novel has narrated various myths and tales about famous mystics belonging to Sindh. The novel presents story of Ali, a young media reporter, who faces identity problem because of social and psychological issues but when he realizes that his land needs his services, he becomes political activist. This study analyses historical facts and some social and political discourses presented in the novel. Effort is done to interpret the novel according to the theory. Cultural context and social environment of the author is analyzed by observing facts from her social and personal life. Social and political situation of present era are discussed to find the impact of present situation on the interpretation of the author.

Attitude Towards Science: A Case Study of Higher Secondary Level Students of Sindh Province

Author: Khatoon, Zohra, Parveen Munshi
This research is conducted, in order to perceive the attitude of higher secondary level students of Sindh towards science. Students (Male = 448, Female = 648) belonging to higher-secondary level (Class-XI & XII) from Hyderabad division were surveyed. Students were divided in Urban (N=455) and Rural (N=641) groups accordingly. “Test of Science Related Attitudes” known as TOSRA, initially developed by (Fraser, 1978) was adapted and translated in Urdu as well, was used as the attitude measurement instrument. Internalk consistancey was checked with Cronbach’s alpha reliability test. After pilot study the test was administrated. Significant difference of the attitude towards science across the students was noticed based on their gender and their locale. The results show that, with small effect size, male students significantly scored higher on almost all of the attitude sub-scales of TOSRA as compared to female students. Interestingly, students belonging to rural areas significantly scored higher with medium effect size on all the attitude sub-scale towards science as compare to students from urban areas.

Historical, Cultural and Geographical Ties Between Pakistan and Iran

Author: Qadir, Abdul, Mir Wais Kasi, Jabeen Bhutto, Abdul Rahman Nizamani
In order to get a vivid picture of Pakistan-Iran relations, the paper delves into the past with Iranian history and Iranian sphere of influence in South Asia. Both South Asia and Iran have ancient historical, cultural and religious ties since the times of the Cyrus the Great to the present. The Persian language and literature particularly the Persian classical poetry have left a great impression on sub-continent’s cultural and educational canvass. Pakistan-Iran border which was drawn by the British in the 1880s, remains still intact. Though the border is a wasteland with little agriculture but on the sea-front both the countries have access to the Strait of Hormuz which is of great strategic importance. Moreover, ethnic Baloch live on both sides of the border and crossborder and trade and livestock is the mainstay of cross-border economy. During the Cold War period, both Pakistan and Iran were subservient to the US policies against the Soviet Union; consequently, both received massive arms and equipment. This paper also indicates that during Mohammed Reza Shah’s time, the relations between Pakistan and Iran were quite friendly but they underwent a change after the Iranian revolution and during General Zia’s time. The main issues have been spelled out up-till 1979 and the minor frictions between the two countries could be managed through diplomacy. External pressures are also influencing the contemporary relations between the two countries and have put Pakistan in a dilemma. Historical and secondary sources have been used for the conduct of the study. Historical research has an important role to play in the Social Sciences. It helps us to understand the present by highlighting the past events.

Performance of Banking Industry After Privatization in Pakistan: A Case Study of Mcb Bank Limited

Author: Bajoi, Muhammad Ishaque, Ambreen Zaib Khaskhelly
This research work aims to investigate the impact of privatization on the performing efficiency of MCB Bank Limited Privatization and the phenomenon of denationalization after the failure of socialism and communism globally. As the direction of enteritis was predetermined by state which in long term affected the performance of state-owned entities on many fronts even they reached at the verge of collapse and state was compelled to inject capital for their survival. Ultimately the state took drastic steps and initiated the process of denationalization and privatization to keep the industry intact in the changed scenario. In 1974, during Z.A.Bhutto regime Pakistan’s banking industry was nationalized with prime objective to address the issues of backward segments of economy but unfortunately after privatization industry was used for political motives and witnessed poor performance and financial indiscipline due to frequent interference in the affairs of banks particularly in lending activities and hiring of inefficient human resources. Resultantly banks failed to deliver as per expectation of masses and could not deliver quality customer services on one hand and accumulation of infected portfolio on the other which in turn swallowed the profitability and the capital of banks. It is revealed that bank has tremendously performed in all Key Performing Indicators, it has improved its profitability manifold, deposit base is significantly enhanced and became more liquid and solvent.

Cultural Linkages Between the People of Sindh and Japan

Author: Shaikh, Khalil-ur-Rahman
Japan and the land of present Pakistan had cultural linkages since ages. Sindh has remained important part of this land. The Indus civilization had trade links with other countries including Sumerian and Babylonian civilizations. This trend continued afterwards, and trade relations were established between people of Sindh and Japan in the nineteenth century. This interaction led both the countries to have cultural linkages. Presently many Sindhis are residing in Japan who have adopted Japanese culture besides maintaining their own cultural traditions and customs. Sindhi poetry adopted Japanese Haiku and ‘Safarnamas’ were written in Sindhi language grasping the living and traditions, etc. of Japan. This research paper also discusses that both countries’ people have similar style of sitting together and exchange of opinions and happenings of the day which is traditionally called ‘Katchehry’ in Sindh.

World View: A Philosophical and Theological Perspective

Author: Abdullah, Muhammad, Ghulam Ali Buriro, Rizwan Aftab
The world of today has emerged as a global village with diversity of culture, faith, religion, ideology and belief. The difference of point of view and intolerance are still left to be taken into account by the intellectuals of the world seriously with other multiple universal problems. In the present scenario, there is a need to rationalize the human existence on the face of Earth in terms of the sole objectives of human life. This study is an attempt to present a world view to the humanity through a philosophical and theological approach. Multiple questions have been raised and then answered with reference to Islamic religious philosophy of human life. It is an attempt to strengthen harmony among the world citizens.

A Comparative Research Between Conventional and Islamic Bank System of Pakistan: Liquidity Risk Management

Author: Shaikh, Fazal Ali, Nasrullah Odhano
The function of the bank is differentiated into budgetary middle people, facilitator and supporters. Hence, the banks keep themselves as confided body to their trade and business partners. Assets hazard could emerge and to be seen out of such diverse tasks since they are entirely on stake in terms of accessibility. When assets are set out by the non-members supplementary actions are necessary to be taken by the Islamic banks in order to balance assets and liquidity with sharia standards. The purpose of this exploration is to find the liquidity risk associated to the dissolvability of finance based foundation in order to evaluate assets risk management via parallel evaluation between Islamic and other Pakistani banks. This paper inspects the significance of the magnitude of the bank, networking capital margin on equity, finical sufficiency plus return on Resources and Assets (RoA), along assets stake organization in conventional plus Islamic banks of the Pakistan. The investigation relays on auxiliary knowledge that is over the period of four years. For instance, during 2017-2018, the investigation explored positive, hence, less significant relationship of magnitude of the firm plus networking cash surge to net assets along with liquidity vulnerability in similar models. Moreover, financial competence share in other banks plus margin of assets in Islamic banks is found encouraging and prominent at ten percent 10% gradation equivalent.

Why Criminologists Study Journalism?

Author: Ansari, Suhail, Hassan Latif Shaikh, Rameez Ali Mahesar
‘Media is situated within, and fully interwoven with, many other social practices, to the extent where crime and media representations are inseparable’. Criminologist must, however, be alert to the ways in which media create perceptions in order to understand that things are not as always as they are presented. Criminologist has to be a well-versed scholar on the subject of media practices to tread fuzzy area between the news and propaganda and to identify the instances of media coverage of crime as the major culprit for the increase in crime through its redefinition; and for the increase in pessimism through projecting only dark things in much darker light as good news is bad news for media. Awareness of media practices helps criminologist to understand the reasons for separate feeds so can be used for different content of several newspapers to realize truth; and to understand the failure of media to publicize moral dilemma because of its failure to offer rational and duly informed societal response. Criminologist is to be media scholar to know that news is not necessarily about events those transcend crimes and there does exists the standoff between moral panic and realism and separation of cause and effect and the addition of newness to news and exceptionalization of crime; and crime representation can be for the marginalization of some groups.

Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District

Author: Noor-Ul-Hiba, Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto
The aim of this study is to recognize that how many divorced men and women are agreed that forced marriages and uneducated spouse are the causes of divorce in Hyderabad district. This study is based on primary data, and the data are collected through questionnaires from 400 respondents (200 divorced men and 200 divorced women) by using stratified sampling. Results indicate that both men and women are highly agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages and uneducated spouse in Hyderabad district. The hypotheses of this study have been accepted and there is no association between the variables of chi-square test.

The Enigma of Stable Employment: Does Job Security Really Make Difference in Employee Performance?

Author: Makhdoom, Tayyaba Rafique, Muhammad Nawaz, Safia Saifuddin Abbasi
Employees are the precious assets of organizations and play a vital role in success or failure of any organization. Job security is one of the main goals of employees in Pakistan. It is also considered one of the important factors for job attitude. As it has been considered and supported by researches that job security creates job satisfaction and job satisfaction has positive relationship with performance. This research explored relationship between job security and job performance of employees in organization. The sample consists of 60 employees from nine organizations of District Badin (Private, Public & NGOs), convenient sampling technique was used. Close-ended Questionnaire was divided in two portions, the first portion comprises on 6 items about job security that was filled by employees, and the second portion consists of 15 items about job performance and was filled by their bosses afterward. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22.0 in terms of Descriptive Statistics and Pearson Correlation. Non-confirmed employees are performing better as compared to confirmed employees due to fear of loss of job at any time as they believe that performance causes to get a job secured. Results demand for serious consideration about motivation, evaluation, confirmation and probation policies in organizations.

Negotiating the Pre-9/11 Muslim Identity in Reluctant Fundamentlist and Home Boy

Author: Chandio, Muhammad Tufail, Muhammad Khan Sangi
This paper critically analyses pre-9/11 diasporic identity of Muslims living in the US as immigrants or expatriates depicted in The Reluctant Fundamentlist (TRF) and Home Boy (HB) authored by minority outgroup Muslims (MO). The pre-9/11 identity and image of Muslims has exacerbated from erotic, primitive, barbaric, ignorant, close-minded and semicitizen to maddened, fundamentalist, blood-thirsty and terrorist after the attacks. The study attempts a textual analysis of the novels in the light of Rosenau’s model (2003) of diasporic acculturation process and social identity theory (ST). Given this stereotyping, this study endeavours to dissect the pre-9/11approach Muslims immigrants adopt to negotiate their religious identity in the hostland: whether they are fanatic and diehard separatist or they are moderate and assimilative into the enlightened values of the West. Opposite to popular assumptions, the protagonists have been found very much assimilative and adoptive to the host culture and also adhere to their homeland culture as well.

University Employed Women’s Perspective on Societal Attitudes Towards Their Employment

Author: Khatwani, Mukesh Kumar, Farida Yasmin Panhwar, Ishrat Afshan Abbasi
This descriptive quantitative research paper attempts to explore how women employees at one of the public universities in province of Sindh perceive their profession and societal attitudes including those of colleagues, family and neighbours towards these professional women and their profession. The target participants of this study were academic and non-academic women who had minimum 5 years work experience. Through random sampling technique 100 women (50 from each category) were selected for taking part in survey questionnaire. Findings suggest a positive shift in societal attitude towards professional women in general and working in universities in particular. Interestingly, non-academic respondents perceived societal attitude more positive and supportive than those of academic.

Coverage of Women Issues in the Pakistan’s Press: A Critical Analysis

Author: Shaikh, Shazia Shahab, Zulfiqar Ali Qureshi, Faiza Fateh Muhammad
The aim of this research is to thoroughly analyze the part multilingual dailies play in covering women issues in Pakistan. It is rooted from national newspapers, the Daily ‘Dawn’, the Daily ‘Jang’ and the Daily ‘Kawish’ in the year of 2011. The study explores to what extent of the violence against women and education issue of women is dealt by the sampled dailies. The study employed content analysis a quantitative research methodology during 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011. The contents of the newspaper were measured in column per centimeter of the space of one year. For this research work three major dailies of three different languages, the Daily Dawn, the Daily Jang and the Daily Kawish were selected. In sum up, an elite class newspaper the Daily Dawn has published 562 very little issues of women and used 0.6 percent of the total capacity which is of 4353024 co./cm in the year of 2011. However, the Sindhi language newspaper, the Daily Kawish has used 2430 a little more issue of women and covered 2.3 percent of total capacity of 1678976 col./cm of this daily in 2011. To some extent, the Urdu language newspaper the Daily Jang has reported 1297 more number of women issues and used 1 percent of total capacity of 2423616 col./cm in one year. Hence, the result shows that Pakistani press gives a little bit space to issues of women rights. Although, the Daily Dawn and the Daily Kawish have reported more issues of violence against women but the Daily Jang (an Urdu language newspaper) has covered more education problems of women in its newspaper in the year of 2011.

Impact of Traditional Values on the Equality of Females Living in Balochistan, Pakistan

Author: Anwar, Shabana Muhammad, Pirah Zulfiqar Hakro, Mohammad Irfan, Shabana Akhtar
Societies follow a traditional value. Traditions evolve and are adapted according to the wish of majority of the people. Cultures mostly are under the disposition of the patriarchal system, a system dominated by men, where women are discriminated and subjugated because they hold a vulnerable position in the society. The present study focuses on equality of women present in Quetta Balochistan, effected by the cultural values present. Data was selected from seven Government Girls degree Colleges of Quetta based on random sampling method. The researcher used SSPS tool to evaluate the data. Results highlighted that cultural values are affecting the females here in Quetta and they are not treated as equals to their male counterparts.

Enlightened Message of Sufism Towards Peaceful Pakistan

Author: Sandano, Imran Ali, Syed Faisal Hyder Shah, Irfan Ahmed Shaikh
In today’s world mankind seems to be skidding towards chaos and violence. Mankind is divided on the lines of faith, race, sect, colour, cast, language and creed. Odium and intolerance have become the orders of the day. This condition pushes to take the refuge of religion but the religious radicalism, intolerance and discrimination are also in the fold. In this situation Sufi message comes to give shelter for peace, love and humanity. The enlightened Sufi message is not for one nation, race, or community but it is for the whole of humanity. Pakistan has faced terrified situations due to dangerous trends of religious extremism, radicalism and social intolerance. In order to understand this problem, the concept of Sufism has been applied. This has been used as an approach / methodology to evade from hated and violent tendency to reorient Pakistan back on the track to peace and prosperity. Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan have been taken as case study to give the empirical evidence. This study demonstrates that the enlightened message of Sufism has enough potential to bring back peaceful environment.

The Reluctant Fundamentalist Exploring the Ideological Basis and Bicultural Consciousness in Pakistani Diasporic Anglophone Fiction

Author: Zubair, Hassan Bin, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Shuja Ahmed Mahesar, Uzma Murad Panhwar
This paper explores the religious ideological basis, cultural ambivalence and a bicultural identity issues in Mohsin Hamid’s The Reluctant Fundamentalist. This Pakistani Anglophone novel carries different diasporic sensibilities. Issues related to culture, religion and its association with ideological grounds are very prominent. Elements of immigrant feelings and loss of identity are very vibrant. The writer shares migrant experience and the influence of a new culture of the host country, United States. While migrants from some of the Asian states, mainly those characterized by most recent immigrant waves, have really worse socio-economic situation than average immigrants; Pakistani people are among minorities. This research is qualitative in nature. Theories presented by Arjun Appadurai, Homi K Bhabha, and James Clifford about culture and diaspora support this research. This research is helpful to know about the concerns associated with the liminal space and issues related to identity loss, strong affiliation and recognition on the basis of religion and living with a bicultural identity.

Water Sharing Conflicts and Management in the Indus River Basin

Author: Akhtar, Shamshad, Muhammad Rafique Dhanani
Sharing water resources within country and amongst transborder countries often create conflict because of increasing demand of fresh water for their domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors due to growing population and increasing economic activities. As a result, every country is interested to build more water storages like dams and barrages to safeguard their water requirements in the lean periods or to protect their areas during flood period. Therefore, a transboundary conflict amongst riparian countries on water sharing is obvious facts which are resolved either through bilateral dialogue or by involving international arbitrators. Similarly, a conflict of water sharing within a country has also been serious issue particularly during drought and lean period resulting political conflicts and obstacles in construction of dams and reservoirs. Pakistan is country of 207 million populations, the sixth of the most populated country of the world has been facing transboundary water sharing conflict with India while within a country inter provinces mistrust over water distribution has created reservation over the construction of new water storages. Pakistan has two agreements which provide legal framework for water distribution and management. Indus Water Treaty is an international agreement signed in 1960 between India and Pakistan and other is national agreement amongst the provinces called Indus water accord signed in 1991 by province. Despite several reservations and hostile territorial conflicts between India and Pakistan the Indus water treaty has been successfully functioning in managing water distribution of Indus River and its eastern tributaries originate from Indian occupied Kashmir. Similarly, Indus water accord 1991 provides a mechanism to resolve water sharing conflicts amongst provinces.