Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers
|Journal||Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies|
|Title||Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers|
|Author(s)||Fabian, Aaron Christopher, Shane Reza Amath, Harry Canlas, Sandra Dimal, Pamela Mercado|
|Keywords||Multiple Intelligences, dominant intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence|
|Chicago 16th||Fabian, Aaron Christopher, Shane Reza Amath, Harry Canlas, Sandra Dimal, Pamela Mercado. "Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1, no. 1 (2014).|
|APA 6th||Fabian, A. C., Amath, S. R., Canlas, H., Dimal, S., Mercado, P. (2014). Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1(1).|
|MHRA||Fabian, Aaron Christopher, Shane Reza Amath, Harry Canlas, Sandra Dimal, Pamela Mercado. 2014. 'Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers', Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.|
|MLA||Fabian, Aaron Christopher, Shane Reza Amath, Harry Canlas, Sandra Dimal, Pamela Mercado. "Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1.1 (2014). Print.|
|Harvard||FABIAN, A. C., AMATH, S. R., CANLAS, H., DIMAL, S., MERCADO, P. 2014. Multiple Intelligences: Learners VS Teachers. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.|
The study investigated the relationship of the multiple intelligences of the Bachelor of Secondary Education students and their teachers in their major subjects. Four hundred eighty-five (485) BSED students and twenty-two (22) teachers in their respective major subjects participated. The result demonstrates statistically significant in the multiple intelligences of the Bachelors of Secondary Education Major in Technology and Livelihood Education and Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health and their teachers in their respective major subjects. However, result also demonstrates no significance in the multiple intelligences of the Bachelors of Secondary Education Major in Filipino, English, and Mathematics and their teachers in their respective major subjects. The study shows that the dominant intelligences of the BSED students and their teachers in their major subjects are the interpersonal, intrapersonal, and their suited intelligences for their major subjects. The result evidently showed that the BSED students and their major teachers are people and self smart. This only shows that as a teacher, one should know how to socialize appropriately with others and have a deeper understanding with themselves. It also showed that the teachers are really smarter than their students in their major field of specialization. Educators must also consider the multiple intelligences of their students to fully develop their learning capabilities.
Defining intelligence is an endeavor that has long consumed the human mind. Being intelligent does not always mean that someone performs well in a test-- a problem with which teachers and school administrators have struggled since the earliest days of organized education. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences helps educators think differently about "IQ," and about what being "smart" means. The theory is changing the way some teachers teach (Guignon 2010). In his landmark book, “Frames of Mind: The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences”, published in 1983, Harvard University education professor Howard Gardner unveiled a theory of multiple intelligences that famously rejected the traditional and long-held view that aptitude consists solely of the ability to reason and understand complex ideas. Instead, he identified seven separate human capacities: musical, verbal, physical, interpersonal, visual, logical, and intrapersonal. And not all of them, including the category he added years later -- naturalistic -- could be easily evaluated by the standard measuring stick of the time: the IQ test.
Gardner has defined at least eight of the intelligences as stated in his Theory of Multiple Intelligences. These Multiple Intelligences are: (1) Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence; (2) Logical/Mathematical Intelligence; (3) Visual/Spatial Intelligence; (4) Musical/Rhythmical Intelligence; (5) Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence; (6) Interpersonal Intelligence; (7) Intrapersonal Intelligence; and (8) Naturalist Intelligence (Lazear: 1999). It should be understood that the teacher’s role in making the teaching and learning process possible using the theory of Multiple Intelligence is imperative. Even if the emphasis of the theory is upon learning rather than teaching, the teachers should also know how to properly maximize these Multiple Intelligences for their student’s progress. Also, they should know how teaching and learning through the multiple intelligences helps solve many common school problems and optimized the learning experience for students and teachers alike. According to Margaret Mead, we educate to engage the “whole gamut of human potentialities” in the classroom, society will benefit by enabling “each diverse human gift to find its fitting place.”
Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom
There are many ways to incorporate Multiple Intelligences theory into the curriculum, and there is no set method by which to incorporate the theory. Some teachers set up learning centers with resources and materials that promote involving the different intelligences. Other instructors design simulations that immerse students into real life situations. Careful planning during the lesson design process will help to ensure quality instruction and valuable student experiences in the classroom. (Read et,al. 2006)
Other instructional models, such as project-based and collaborative learning may be easily integrated into lessons with Multiple Intelligences. Collaborative learning allows students to explore their interpersonal intelligence, while project-based learning may help structure activities designed to cultivate the nine intelligences. This particular instructional model allows students to work together to explore a topic and to create something as the end product. This works well with Multiple Intelligences theory, which places value on the ability to create products. It is important for teachers to carefully select activities that not only teach to the intelligences, but also realistically mesh with the subject matter of the lesson or unit. Multiple Intelligences theory should enhance, not detract from what is being taught.
Benefits of Multiple Intelligences
Using Multiple Intelligences theory in the classroom has many benefits: (1) As a teacher and learner you realize that there are many ways to be "smart". (2)All forms of intelligence are equally celebrated. (3) By having students create work that is displayed to parents and other members of the community, your school could see more parent and community involvement. (4) A sense of increased self-worth may be seen as students build on their strengths and work towards becoming an expert in certain areas. (5) Students may develop strong problem solving skills that they can use real life situations.
Design. This study utilized the descriptive survey type of research. It classified the multiple intelligences of the BSED students and described if there is a significant difference to the multiple intelligences of their teacher in their major subjects.
Sampling and Procedure. Using a stratified random sampling technique, four hundred eighty-five (485) BSED Students and twenty-two (2) teachers in their major subjects during the first semester of the academic year 2010-2011 participated in the study. One set of questionnaire was given for the purpose of the study and they were given ample time to fill the questionnaire. During distribution of survey questionnaire, they were informed about the purpose of the study. Also, interview was conducted to further explain the responses of students on the questionnaire.
Questionnaire. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was lifted from the book of Thomas Armstrong entitled “Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom – Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curricular Development, 1994” was adapted by the researchers. It contained eight intelligences such as (1) linguistic intelligence, (2) logical-mathematical intelligence, (3) musical intelligence, (4) visual-spatial intelligence, (5) bodily kinesthetic intelligence, (6) interpersonal intelligence, (7) intrapersonal intelligence, and (8) naturalist intelligence.
Data Analysis. Data was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the dominant intelligences of the BSED students and their teachers in their major subjects. T-test was conducted to test the difference of the MI of the BSED students and their major teachers.
Results and Discussion
Table 1: Mean Comparison of the Multiple Intelligences of the BSED Students and their Teachers in their Major Subjects
As can be seen on the table, two of the three dominant intelligences of the BSED students and their teachers in their major subjects are the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. As cited by Zulueta (2002) interpersonal intelligence is used in person-to-person relationships. It includes the ability of a person to communicate with others and to have the empathy for their feelings and beliefs. Likewise to the words of Gines (1998), interpersonal intelligence is the ability to function well in social situations, understand the needs of the people, and predict the behaviour. This means that a person who is dominant in this kind of intelligence has the ability to work with people, respond to other’s feelings and personalities and help people identify and overcome problems.
Moreover, as proved by Zulueta (2002) Intrapersonal intelligence is based on knowledge of the “self”. It includes metacognition, emotional responses, self – reflection, and an awareness of metaphysical concepts. Gines (1998), states that intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to know yourself well and understand what motivates your behaviour. It means that people who are intrapersonal intelligent are sensitive to their own strengths, weaknesses, goals and desires.
As reflected also on the table, the TLE and MAPEH students and their teachers in their respective major subjects have the bodily – kinesthetic intelligence as one of the dominant intelligences that they possess. As mentioned by Zulueta (2002), bodily – kinesthetic intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowledge of the body and how it functions. It also includes the ability to use the body to express emotions, to play a game, and to interpret and to invoke effective “body” language. So people whose intelligence is dominant in kinesthetic, are good in manipulating objects effectively and use their body expressively.
Furthermore, it is seen that the Filipino and English students and their respective major teachers have the linguistic intelligence as one of the highest averaging intelligences that they have. According to Salandanan (2009), people who are linguistically intelligent speak efficiently and write effectively. He also defines Linguistic intelligence as the sensitivity to the sounds, meanings, structures and styles of language, which means that the students pay more attention to words than to the scenery.
Lastly, the Mathematics students and their teachers in their major subjects have the logical intelligences as one of their dominant intelligences. Mateo (2010) cited that logical – mathematical intelligence is the capacity in reasoning abstractly and solving mathematical and logical problems. He even included that professionally inclined people are mathematicians and scientists. Salandanan (2006) stated that people under this intelligence are sensitive to patterns, numbers, and numerical data, causes and effects, objectives and quantitative reasoning. They also have the ability to work effectively with numbers and reason out effectively.
Similar results were found on the study of Canlas, et.al entitled “Teaching Styles and Multiple Intelligences of Teachers in the College of Education at Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University, Bacolor, Pampanga 2010 – 2011” that the interpersonal intelligence is the most dominant among the teachers. It indicates, as expected, that teachers are people smart which occurs through relating, communication, teamwork, and collaboration.
According to the study of Estravillo, et.al 2012 entitled “Multiple Intelligences and the Academic Performance of the Bachelor of Elementary Education at Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University” that most of the students have interpersonal intelligence whereby only some had visual/spatial intelligence.
Table 2: t-test of the Multiple Intelligences of the BSED Students and their Teachers in their Major Subjects
As reflected on the table, it is found out that the suited multiple intelligence in the major subjects of the students and the major field of specialization of their teachers have a significant difference, it may conclude that because of the expertise and the experience of the teachers, the teachers are really significantly different in the level of development of the suited intelligence compared to their students. Also for the BSED TLE and MAPHE students and their major teachers, they have significant differences in general on their Multiple Intelligences. It suggests that as a student, they really need to develop their suited intelligence and widen their knowledge on their field of specialization. According to Marian Diamond, a neuropsychologist at the University of California-Berkeley, has discovered that the human brain can change and improve with frequent use. Diamond's theory of the "Plasticity of the Brain" implies that environmental conditions, interpersonal stimulation, and the way in which individuals think and behave actually change the body, brain, and intelligence (Hinne 2008).
On the other hand, BSED students major in Mathematics, Filipino, and English generally do not have significant differences on all the remaining multiple intelligences in relation to the multiple intelligences of their teachers. This may suggests that the students may have the same intelligence as for their teachers in some aspects but they differ in rank order.
Conclusions and Recommendations
This study attempted to ascertain the dominant intelligences and the relationship of the MI of the BSED students and their teachers in their major subjects.
Results of the study accepted the hypothesis drawn in the Filipino, English and the Mathematics students and teachers while the results from TLE and MAPHE students and teachers rejected the hypothesis drawn. It is also evident and consistent that the dominant multiple intelligences of the BSED students and their major subjects are the interpersonal, intrapersonal intelligences and their suited multiple intelligence for their major field of specialization. The study also showed that the BSED students and their teachers in their major field of specialization have the same dominant intelligence but they only vary in their rank order wherein mostly of their teachers in their major subjects have the suited intelligence for their specialized subjects as their first dominant intelligence (except for the TLE and MAPHE where their suited intelligence were ranked 3rd and 2nd respectively) while for the BSED students, they have their suited intelligences as the 2nd or 3rd rated dominant intelligence.
These results provide evidences that each student possesses a unique profile of intelligence, school administrators, educators, curriculum planners, and parents alike should design learning environment that empowers children to maximize their learning potentials. Since that the students and teachers have the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences as one of their dominant intelligences, they should join and attend seminars about enhancement of their social skills and personality development in order to enhance more their interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Teachers should utilize their multiple intelligences and align their MSAT (Methods, Strategies, Approaches, and Techniques) that could really help in the maximization of the learning and the multiple intelligences of their students. Students specializing in specific fields should exert more effort in professional development to fully attain and enhance their suited multiple intelligence in their major field of specialization.
However, the repercussion drawn from this study must be viewed in the light of the limitations inherent to the research, primarily the size and scope of the samples. Although this study included limited respondents, future researchers may pursue the same study, measuring the same construct but with greater and wider range of samples, and consider some other factors like different courses, academic performance, learning styles, etc in order to generalize the conclusions derived from this research.
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