Volume 54 Issue 2

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Grassroots 
Grassroots Title.jpg
Title of Grassroots
DisciplineSocial Sciences
Blind Peer Review
LanguageEnglish
Edited byShuja Ahmed Mahesar
Publication details
History1976-present
Publisher
Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh Jamshoro (Pakistan) (Pakistani)
FrequencyBiannual
Open Access
ISO 4Find out here
Indexing
ISSN1726-0396 (print)
2521-456X (web)
Links
None
None
24 weeks

Examining the Issue of Identity in Ayisha Malik’s Novel “Sofia Khan is Not Obliged” Through Homi K. Bhabha’s Concepts of ‘Hybridity, Ambivalence and Mimicry’

Author: Chandio, Fozia, Ghualm Ali Buriro
This paper studies Ayisha Malik’s Sofia Khan is not obliged from postcolonial perspective. The paper studies the novel from the view of the discourse presented by Homi K. Bhabha. The novel was published in 2015. The story revolves around a girl of Muslim ethnicity from Pakistan named Sofia Khan. She is living in London and is working there in a publishing company. The story is about the adventures of protagonist; her experiences and views the London from her perspective. The paper analyzes the characters and the main events from the research method of textual analysis. The study finds that the concept proposed by Bhabha, very much plays an operative role (viable role) on the British-Muslim- characters in their attempt to assimilate into their Host/Home country. It concludes that how these Muslim characters locate agency in the “in between space” within the process of mimicry and negotiate their identity in their effort to assimilate in colonizer’s space.

Development Discourse and Womens Empowerment in Sindh

Author: Wassan, Muhamamd Rafique, Abdul Razaque Channa
This research paper investigates and introduces the idea of development discourse and women empowerment question in Sindh. Based on the investigation and analysis of the writings by Sindhi intelligentsia in the Sindhi print media and book publications that present the discourse of development, progress, prosperity, and social change in Sindh, in this paper we engage with and call attention to the question of women empowerment. By integrating women empowerment and rights in this paper, we aim to set the research agenda and draw attention to gender and development theory and practice. In a way, this paper takes up and supports the gender-sensitive research approach to development discourse, public policy, and planning in Pakistan. It prioritizes gender and women's empowerment framework in research, teaching, and development practice.

Benazir Bhutto and the Challenge and Response Theory

Author: Azeem, Muhammad, Muhammad Iqbal Chawla, Fatima Riffat
This study estimates the leadership qualities of Benazir Bhutto, first female Prime Minister of Pakistan and the Islamic world. The life history of Benazir Bhutto also falls under the category of charismatic leadership as she displayed exceptional leadership qualities in the face of different personal and political challenges. Much has been written on the life, personality and political career of Benazir Bhutto but very few have made academic and in depth study of leadership qualities of Benazir Bhutto which were predominant and striking features of her political leadership during her second tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan (1993-96). Therefore, this article navigates on diverse Socio-economic, Political and Geo-strategic challenges and responses of Benazir Bhutto as Prime Minister of Pakistan (1993-96). Further, it encapsulates her relationship with military, dwindling state of economy, revengeful role of opposition and various contradictions with President created a grave challenge not only for poor governance but also for the longevity of her premiership tenure. It was not smooth sailing for her as Prime Minister; however, it was a hard journey full of myriad challenges, inherited dwindling economy, overdeveloped state structure, strife torn society, volatile geo-political situation, regional disparities, vindictive politics of opposition and imbalance of power between Prime Minister and President required stupendous efforts from Benazir Bhutto as a Prime Minister. Further, this study presents a systematic and factual analysis of the socio-economic challenges and the arbitrary use of the Presidential power (58) (2B). Furthermore, theory of challenge and response has also been applied to have a better understanding of Benazir Bhutto’s leadership qualities and administrative abilities. It also throws light on the circumstances that led towards her ouster from premiership. Besides, this study attempts to find what were the diverse challenges faced by Benazir Bhutto as a Prime Minister (1993-96)? How did she respond to various challenges as Prime Minister?

Socio-Economic Conditions of Home-Based Working Women: A Qualitative Study in Hyderabad, Sindh

Author: Atta, Zareen, Nasreen Aslam Shah
This research paper focuses on socio-economic conditions of home-based working women in Hyderabad Division, of Sindh Pakistan. Main objectives of this research are (i) to analyze the Socio-economic condition of home-based working women (ii) to assess the poverty and home-based work (iii) to find out the illiteracy and home-based work (iv) to investigate the role of handicrafts and home-based work in cultural and economic development (v) to unearth the Sindhi culture of handicrafts in Hyderabad Division. To achieve research objectives qualitative research approach is adopted and data is collected by four case studies in Hyderabad division. All cases are selected randomly and analyzed by using thematic analysis method. Present study concluded that researched area is rich in handicrafts business. Women engaged themselves in home-based work due to poverty, unemployment and poor financial conditions of their families. This business has very low profit but female preferred this work due less skills and education required to carry handicrafts business. Home-based workers felt empowered due to having their own income and took part in decision making. In last it is recommended for policy makers and government agencies to give priority to this business because it has potential. It is necessary for economic development of families, culture and country.

Perceptions of Sindhi Muslims Towards Exogamous Marriages: An Exploratory Study

Author: Abbasi, Muhammad Hassan, Maya Khemlani David
It has been said that exogamous marriages tend to lead to language shift (Igboanus & Wolf, 2009 & Dumanig, David & Shanmuganathan, 2013). In an early study Gal (1978) found that Hungarian women marrying German men in the city of Oberwat had shifted to German to negate their peasant Hungarian ancestry and to move up the socio-economic ladder. Similarly, David and Dealwis (2011) found in their study of Malaysian Sindhi Hindus that exogamous marriages tend to lead to language shift but is not the only reason for the shift away from the heritage language. Therefore, before mixed marriages take place one should study perceptions of the speech community towards such marriages. In this exploratory study, the perceptions of Sindhi Muslims-men and women and from different socio-economic groups towards exogamous marriages are studied. With this objective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Sindhi Muslim participants (four male adults and six female adults) who live in Karachi. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and themes were generated after formal consent was obtained. The findings show that language choice in the home domain is shifting because of intercultural marriages. Also, such marriages are frequent among Sindhi community members with a high socio-economic status who live in cities. Gender plays an equal role too, as the women respondents showed mixed responses towards exogamous marriages while the male respondents had a more positive perception. Such views and perceptions may affect choice of marital partners and language choice in the home domain.

Reconciliation Process in Afghanistan and Pakistan as Cardinal Player

Author: Abbas, Asim, Jamshed Baloch
Afghanistan is in state of war for almost 40 long years but the political dynamics got changed after 9/11. Since the war on terror started facets of peace talks launched without meaningful end. The reconciliation process in Afghanistan had immediately started after establishment of Afghan interim government in 2001. Till 2016 mid, four different reconciliation /reintegration processes were launched by the USA and Hamid Karzai government with Afghan Taliban. The new elected president Ashraf Ghani ended all such processes in 2016 but showed willingness again in 2018 for direct peace talks between USA and Taliban clerics. In the current political scenario, Afghan reconciliation process is back on track with direct peace talks between USA, Taliban and Afghan Government along other international actors. However, Taliban were not ready to sit with the Afghan Government and this is where the Pakistan played as key to Afghan peace process. The focus of this research article is to find the challenges and opportunities of this peace process; Pakistan’s role as cardinal player can consolidate the peace process in Afghanistan. Furthermore, this research will give future recommendations for the peace process in Afghanistan.

Hybrid Warfare and its Impacts on Pakistan

Author: Sadiq, Muhammad, Imran Ali Noonari, Inayatullah Bhatti
In modern times, the conventional means of warfare are increasingly becoming less usable. However, the states are involved in waging hybrid warfare to the maximum to fulfill their foreign policy goals. In nuclearized South Asia, direct war between India and Pakistan seems unlikely given that both the states know that escalation could lead to nuclear catastrophe in the region. This compels both the states to find other means of warfare to undermine each other’s interests. India wants to weaken Pakistan so that it may abandon claim on Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir. For that, India is using all tools of hybrid warfare against Pakistan. In this context, this paper aims at to unearth India’s hybrid warfare in the region and its implications for Pakistan. The main focus of the paper is to explain tools and methods of India hybrid warfare. At the same time the research also tries to unravel few other case studies. It also notes how Pakistan can counter hybrid threats posed by its arch rival.

Why Social Protection is Not Enough to Effectively Address Poverty Reduction in Pakistan

Author: Abro, Munir, Armin Bauer
Pakistan is behind many other countries in the Asia region in reducing poverty. Dedicated poverty reduction Programmes so far were mainly done by NGOs using livelihood and microfinance approaches and since 2008 through the Benazir Income Support Programme’s cash transfer scheme. Recently, the office of the Prime Minister established Ehsaas Strategy which combines the various poverty reduction and social protection approaches in the country under one Programme. This paper argues that a stronger focus on effective income generating poverty reduction Programmes would be needed to make poverty reduction more successful.

Basel Iii: Impact and Challenges to Islamic Financial Institutions: Evidence of Pakistan and Malaysia

Author: Talpur, Arifa Bano, Kamleshwer Lohana, Zareen Khan Rind
The global financial crises 2007 bring about the current banking regulations which stood inadequate to avoid banks from taking in unnecessary risk actions. Therefore, Bank for International Settlement (BIS) and G-20 leaders endorsed a new international standard of banking regulations by revising previous Basel II rule, introduced in 2004, into Basel III in late 2010, so as to enhance the quality including quantity of capital, leverage ratio and liquidity standards, which has become a challenge for nationals to implement these strict reforms under their existing banking system. Parallel with the conventional banking system, for which the Basel Committee formulated Basel framework, Islamic banking introduced in early 1977 to 1980 in Pakistan in response to the decision by the Shariat Bench of Supreme Court, necessitates that the financial system be transformed to operate in conformity with sharia. The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) and Bank Negara Malaysia are the regulator of Islamic banks and full member of IFSB. The Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) established in 2002 in Malaysia as an international standard-setting organization to enforce the international regulatory and supervisory guidelines for Islamic financial organizations along with other standard setting bodies such as AAOIFI and ISDB to achieve this objective. The IFSB promotes the stability and soundness of the Islamic financial institutions by issuing guiding standards and prudential regulations for the industry, The IFSB applied Basel standards in the context of Islamic banks and its operating models. This paper critically evaluates Islamic financial institution’s regulatory and supervisory structures particularly for Pakistan and Malaysia and examines financial position after implementing Basel Accord rules. Study suggests a positive impact in case of both countries.

Gwadar on the Chess Board of History: An Overview

Author: Abbasi, Sahira, Sabahat Jaleel, Shuja Ahmed Mahesar
Until recently, Gwadar has always been mentioned as a small insignificant fishing town. Very little was known about its history and potential to the outside world. However, at the turn of the 21st century Gwadar became the focus of attention globally. The development of a deep seaport with China’s assistance and prospects of connecting China and Central Asia through Pakistan to the North Arabian Sea has brought this small, insignificant fishing town to international recognition. But history reveals that this region has always played a vital role since primeval times due to its geostrategic and geographical location. From Alexander’s retreat to Pakistan’s reclaiming Gwadar, it has always reminded its significance at different times in diverse manners. This paper aims to bring into light the historical journey of Gwadar, which usually remained unknown or were either considered trivial by historians. Gwadar became an important chapter in the Belt and Road initiative proposed by the Chinese president. It will link China, South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Africa and Europe through a network of land and sea routes and ports will contribute significantly to the progress and prosperity of Gwadar in Pakistan, China and the entire region.

Human Capital and Foreign Direct Investment: Lessons for Pakistan

Author: Hattar, Nisar Ahmed, Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto, Ali Gul Khushik
Foreign direct investment plays a key role in economic development of all countries. Because of its enormous importance, a large number of empirical studies has focused on finding out the factors determining foreign direct investment. Level of human capital development is one of the major factors influencing foreign inflows. However, earlier studies examining impact of human capital on foreign investment inflows has majorly used literacy rate, school enrolment and government spending on education as its proxies. This paper also examines the impact of human capital as determinant of foreign direct investment. Contrary to earlier empirical studies, it uses cognitive skills as proxy for human capital. Cognitive skills measure the quality of education instead of literacy rate or government spending on education as proxy for human capital. Results indicate that human capital has significant positive effect on foreign direct investment for sample countries. This result is robust to disaggregated data for developed and developing countries. Other factors that determine foreign direct investment inflows are inflation, capital account openness, trade account openness and real income. Based on empirical results, it is recommended that the relevant authorities must make human capital as part and parcel of strategies aimed at augmenting economic growth in the country. There is also a lesson for a developing country like Pakistan to focus more on quality of education instead of school enrolment or education spending for attracting foreign direct investment to boost economic activity (J.E.L Classification Codes: O4, O15, P22).

Investigating Peace Education and Peace Culture Activities in the Curriculum of Secondary Schools of Pakistan

Author: Ejaz, Huma, Rafique Ahmed Memon
Peace has always been a fundamental need of humanity and social beings. Despite of all the worldly, scientific and materialistic progress in almost every domain of life, eternal peace is missing. Peace education is a process of achieving peace, at personal, inter-personal, national and international levels, through education, focusing on promoting universal brotherhood, fraternity, global citizenship and the culture of peaceful co-existence. This article aims to institutionalize peace education and culture at secondary government schools of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire focusing on peace education and inculcating of peace culture was used for data collection. The data revealed peace education is implicitly taught but it is not practiced in schools and hence, is not part of school curriculum. Also peace culture-related activities are missing in the school curriculum and there is a dire need of such activities.

Influence of Educational and Financial Status of Parents on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students: A Case Study in Hyderabad Division-Sindh

Author: Khatoon, Zohra, Ameer Ali Buriro, Uzma Murad Pahnwer
This research is conducted, in order to analyze the students’ academic performance at secondary school level in Pakistan. This is a case study conducted in Hyderabad Division of Sindh Province in Pakistan. The study was focused to the students who have passed matriculation class (Class-X), equivalent to secondary level in Pakistan(10 years of education). Sample size of 1097 higher Secondary level students were randomly selected from various colleges and schools in a way that around 150 students should take part in the survey from each institute. The sample selection was further divided on gender (Male = 448, Female = 648) and locale (Urban=455, Rural=641) basis. A data collection questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented for data collection. After collection of the data from desired population, the statistical analysis based on Pearson’s Chi-square and Correlation models were carried out in SPSS. The conclusion inferred from the data analysis of the study, strongly revealed that the students’ academic achievement at high school secondary level was highly associated to their parent’s educational level and socio-economic background. Therefore, it is strongly recommended financial condition of the population must be enhanced by taking appropriate measures. In order to coup tough financial conditions at their homes, deprived students should be provided adequate scholarships. Free stationary and books should also be provided at schools.

Negative Wash-Back of Formative Assessment to Learning in Saudi Higher Education Context

Author: Umer, Muhammad, Abdul Fattah Somroo, Amjad Saleem
This article reports the wash-back of formative assessment on what students learn, how they learn and the depth of their learning in Saudi higher education context. Previous research indicates that assessment methods affect different aspects of learning either positively or negatively depending on the nature of assessment tasks. Observations indicate a clear association between Saudi students’ learning and how their learning is assessed; so this research was needed to determine how exactly the correlation looked like—positive or negative. The data in this study were collected from Saudi undergraduates by employing a student survey and semi-structured interviews. The survey included Likert scale items of agreement regarding research assignments, quizzes and midterm examinations administered to 250 English-major students. To validate the survey results, sixteen students from different levels with GPA 3 and above were interviewed. The results showed that formative assessment narrowed down the scope of learning materials. The students mostly adopted surface level learning strategies to prepare for formative assessment tasks. Higher order thinking skills were not tested in any of the formative assessment methods. Therefore, it is suggested that assessments tasks should be subjected to thorough validation and moderation. Sound assessment practices should be put in place and practiced judiciously. To achieve these objectives, sustained institutional and departmental professional backing is a prerequisite.

Proposing Sociological Research on Children Health Problems in Pakistan

Author: Khoso, Pasand Ali, Waheed Ahmed Abbasi, Beenish Malik
Like many low-income countries, Pakistan is facing children’s health problems. The major health problems affecting children in the country are Pneumonia, Diarrhoea, Measles, Malaria and malnutrition. There is much research has already been conducted on biomedical and epidemiological aspects of these health problems, but little is known about the social and cultural dimensions of children’s health issues. This paper attempts to propose the sociological research on children’s health problems in Pakistan with the emic focus on local context. The proposed future research may mainly be situated in the interpretivist paradigm of qualitative inquiry. Thus, it will contribute in up-scaling the very basic understanding of the meaning formed by people about social determinants of prevailing children health problems and their potential hazardous consequences in Pakistan.

Perception of University Students About Horoscopes in Sindh Province, Pakistan

Author: Khuhro, Rashid Ali, Bashir Memon, Sumbul Manzoor
Horoscopes are considered as one of the important content items in the mass media. Many people perceive and believe that these Zodiac signs have an impact on their lives. That is why they check these signs on different media regularly. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of Sindh University students about horoscope. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 100 students of Sindh University through a close-ended questionnaire. The results concluded that girls are more interested in horoscope than boys. The sources for horoscope prediction were mainly newspapers among the Sindh University students. The students reported that they read horoscope daily to skip the pressure and try to satisfy their minds. This research is limited to the University of Sindh students. In the future, the researchers should conduct a large-scale study with a more significant population to determine the perception of the public about horoscopes.

Representation of Gender in Pakistani Comedy Dramas

Author: Abdullah, Muhammad, Muntazar Mehdi, Aimun Noor
Media in its various forms has become a significant part of everyday social life. It influences both how we see ourselves and the world around us to some extent. At different screens of media, images of men and women are presented in different ways and with different characteristics. Studies have been conducted at large regarding representation of gender in movies and television drama serials. This paper was meant to be an addition to this vast canvas of research through analysis of gender representation in the comedy dramas of Pakistan. According to West and Zimmerman’s theory of ‘doing gender’, gender is performed by the people in their everyday actions and interactions. Keeping in view the concept of doing gender this study analyzed roles of males and females and tried to find out how different characters maintain their gender identities in comedy dramas. Results suggested that the characters were, at many places, observed to be acting contrary to the roles associated to their genders by the society. They did or performed gender to maintain their identities.