Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Grassroots
Title Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident
Author(s) Abbasi, Sanaullah
Volume 55
Issue 1
Year 2021
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Terrorism, Economic Deprivation, Crime, Militant Groups, Offences.
Chicago 16th Abbasi, Sanaullah. "Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident." Grassroots 55, no. 1 (2021).
APA 6th Abbasi, S. (2021). Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident. Grassroots, 55(1).
MHRA Abbasi, Sanaullah. 2021. 'Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident', Grassroots, 55.
MLA Abbasi, Sanaullah. "Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident." Grassroots 55.1 (2021). Print.
Harvard ABBASI, S. 2021. Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident. Grassroots, 55.

Abstract

Terrorism is contentious issue. It has affected the lives of people across the country. This paper analyses the factors for incidence of terrorism in Karachi city which has great economic importance for country. The city represents all communities belonging to various parts of the country. Migration of people from other provinces has significally changed demographic profile of the city. This study presents statistics about various offences committed in Hyderabad and Karachi. It describes important facts about the militant groups involved in the acts of terrorism in Karachi. It has been argued in the study that in some cases the acts of violence were politically motivated and in other cases terrorism acts were sponsored by religious groups. In order to understand the complex phenomenon of terrorism in Karachi, this study investigates the root causes of terrorism including economic deprivation. In most cases marginal sections of society have been found involved in the acts of terrorism. Thus, this study creates need for social reforms, poverty alleviation and provision of quality education. Further capacity-building of Law Enforcement Agencies to cope with this situation has been emphasized in this study. This paper also recommends some proposals for dealing with the issue of terrorism.

INTRODUCTION

Terrorism has become a serious challenge faced by Pakistan even before the event of 9/11, 2001. It is a “home grown” reality with dozens of groups that despite crackdowns on their activities by the law Enforcement Agencies, they continue to flourish while a state of denial and lack of political will allowed security issues to reach their existing critical extent. Ex. Chief of Army Staff Gen. Ashfaque Pervaiz Kiani emphasized the issue by quoting following words: “The strongest motivation for peace through negotiations stems from the state of the economy and the imperative need to divert resources for human development. Military competition, if replaced by economic co-operation, can give hope to millions of South Asians for a-better future” (Karamat, 1999).

Hard military assets were presumed to be exclusive solution ignoring the soft assets including social / economic cultures culminating and climaxing in Human development index. The non-State actors were the strategic depth in security state paradigm which exists in island of isolation in hostile vicinity neighborhood. Military calculus is not as important as the human development index in vital for any society to grow (Shabana, 2010).

There are two schools of thoughts available for understanding the nature of terrorism:

(1) The “psychological-sociological” school of thought.

(2) The “political-rational” school of thought.

Psychological school emphasizes fear and anxiety as short term and political as long term goal for terrorism and the psychological-sociological school addresses reliance on psychological condition of individual and peers as group. It depends on profile of an individual terrorist which include paranoia, narcissistic and antisocial behaviour (Million, 1981; Post, 1987).

However, there is no evidence for general personality traits of criminals. Most criminals are having psychological tendencies like activism, thrill and aggression, seeking, an externalist psychological factionalism and mechanism. Characteristics of borderline personalities and _ narcissistic disorders premeditated thoughts. In this regard, Rational choice theory emphasizes conscious, rational, calculated decision to be opted.

One of the experts on terrorism shared his views that he has been studying terrorists and terrorism for more than twenty years. Yet he still always struck by how disturbingly ‘normal’ most terrorists seem when one actually sits down and talks to them. He further remarked that many of them are highly articulate and extremely thoughtful individuals for whom terrorism is (or was) an entirely rational choice” (Hoffman, 1998).

However, the two schools may compliment & supplement one another in-order to explain phenomena of terrorism.


Source: Crenshaw, 1998:386.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The menace of terrorism is serious threat to the integrity of Pakistan. Now the threat has grown to the extent that is considered by security apparatus as potential threat to state of Pakistan.

Karachi is the hub of economic activity contributing more than 80% revenue of the country and the terrorist has targeted Karachi to destabilize Pakistan. If Karachi sneezes, Pakistan catches the cold. Therefore, it is important to study the problem of terrorism in Karachi. Many incidents of terrorism have taken place in Karachi in terms of severity and causalities, which caused serious destruction.

The Safoora incident is case in point which has impacted the entire landscape of Pakistan because the Ismaili Community was targeted which has international connotations.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

  1. Explore the socio-economic profile of terrorists of Safoora incident and analyzing facts about this incident.
  2. Explain the perceptions of terrorists with regards to terrorism.
  3. Analyze various statistics about offences committed in Hyderabad and Karachi.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

For analysis of the issue of terrorism in Karachi in general and Safoora incidents in particular, the data has been collected through following sources. The Primary data has been collected through in-depth interviews of the accused of Safoora incident and the interviews of investigation officers. Besides, the secondary data has been collected books, newspapers, and magazines etc.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF KARACHI

The population Karachi is 15 million with an annual growth rate of 4.8 percent (Mujtaba, 2009). The city is considered as the financial and commercial hub of Pakistan, which contributes to 60% of the country’s economy. According to Federal Government, Karachi contributes about 15 percent of the national GDP, 42 percent of value added in manufacturing sector and 25 percent of the revenues of the Federal Government (Mujtaba, 2009).

Karachi is only deep sea port of the country which serves as shipping and maritime center of Pakistan. It serves as major trade route for landlocked countries.

TABLE-1

COMPARISON BETWEEN PLANNED AND UNPLANNED

AREAS OF KARACHI

Demography Planned Areas Unplanned Areas
a) Average household size 6.9 7.3
b) Gender distribution (male) (%) 54 65
c) Population (under twenty) 48.6 56.4
d) Crude Birth Rate 1.3 3.6
Housing
a) Permanent structures (%) 70-90 20
b) Semi-permanent structures (%) 10-30 19
c) Temporary structures (%) - 5
d) Built Up M2 per person 19.25 11.59
e) Number of persons per room 2 0.5 303
Access to Utilities 83 50.3
a) Water connections (%) 98.4 75.8
b) Gas connections (%) 75 35.1
c) Sewage connections (estimated) (%) 85 12
Education
a) Population rate (under ten) 76 48-67
b) Population with primary education (%) 9.5 21.7
c) Population with intermediary education (%) 19.8 16.3
d) Population with Bachelor and above (%) 19 13.1
a) Population employed (%) 65 64.7
b) Population unemployed (%) 24.9 25.3
c) Housewives (%) 31 34
Income / Expenditure
a) Average Income (Rs.per month) 3808-4930 1899-2158
b) Earned through wages (%) 50.8 77.7
c) Earned through profit (%) 20.2 16.8
d) Average expenditure (Rs.per month) 3083 11648-2109
e) Spent on food (%) 53 58
f) Spent on rent (%) 18 13
g) Spent on savings (%) 30 2.3
Employment

Source: Arif Hasan, 1996.

According to Waseem (1998), migration in Karachi was unnatural after partition. He describes four stages of migration to Karcahi. (i) Muhajirs (1940s-50s), (ii) Punjabis and Pakhtuns (1960s-80s), (iii) Sindhis (1970s-90s) and (iv) foreigners including Afghans and Iranians.

ETHNO-POLITICAL CONFLICTS

Politics has changed socio-political dynamics in Sindh. Before 1947 Hindu constituted and urban population but after their migration to India space was created for migrants from India.

In 1950s, Ayub Khoro was annoyed at this state of migration and its impact on demography of Karachi. Formation of sectarian, social and political organizations, especially for the new settlers resulted in polarization between new and old Sindhis.

During martial law of Zia Muhajirs got prominence on the basis of ethnic and language. They were mobilized after Bushra Zadi incident. Resentment and anger among Mohajir community reached at highest. These developments gave rise to the birth of MQM, when General Zia extended quota system for ten more years. Language issue was one of the key factors for creation of MQM.

MILITANTS GROUPS WORKING IN KARACHI

Jandullah was organized by Atta-ur-Rehman who had deserted Jamate-Muslimeen in 2003. Mr.Atta-ur-Rahman was arrested after the attack on Core Commander of Karachi at Clifton Bridge. The command of the, Jundullah was handed over to Qasim Ghori.

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi: Anti-Shia terrorist outfit is also working in Karachi targeting mainly Shia community. Following 4 factions constituted the umbrella L-Jhangvi. (i) Qari Zafar, (ii) Qari Shakeel, (iii) Farooq Bangali (iv) Akram Lahori groups. Qari Zafar group has strong linkages with al-Qaeda.

Harkat ul-Mujahideen Al-Alami (HUMA): It was established in 2002 as off shoot of Harakat-ul-Mujhadin. It is mainly Karachi-based organization having operated in Afghanistan and in Kashmir. They tried to target Pervez Musharaf but their attempt was failed. Its leaders Hanif and Imran are in custody & sentenced to death by the Court.

Sipah-e-sahaba Pakistan (SSP): Sipah-e-Sahaba has Deobund sectarian organization was banned in 2002. However it continued to flourish under the cover names Millat-e-Islamia, Ahle Sunat, wal-Jamaat Pakistan (ASWJP), Sipah-e-Sahaba. SSP was established in September 6, 1985 in Jhang, District of Punjab. Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, Maulana Ziaur Rehman Farooqi, Maulana Eesar-ul-Haq Qasmi and Maulana Azam Tariq were the pioneers of the SSP. The main objectives of Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP) were as under:

a) To establish Sunni State in Pakistan.

b) To establish the Khilafat system (Khilafat-e-Rashida).

c) To protect the Sunni community and to teheek Shia community.

Sunni Tehreek: Muhammad Salim Qadri, a business man founded Sunni Tehreek in 1990. The ST initially was non-political outfit, focused on four-points:

1) To safeguard the Ahl-e-Sunnat

2) To protect common people from false beliefs

3) Handing over of the Ahl-e-Sunnat mosques and shrines by the administration to the Barelvis.

POLITICALLY-MOTIVATED TERRORISM IN KARACHI

(Husain, 2010) shows that Zia Martial-Law administrator who staged coup in 1977, faced stiff resistance in Sindh which was strong hold of Zulfiar Ali Bhutto who was hanged to death.

TABLE-2

TERRORISM INCIDENTS, PEOPLE KILLED AND

WOUNDED IN PAKISTAN (1974-2007)

Variable Sum Mean
Incidents 2590 76
Killed 5840 172
Wounded 11507 341

Source: Hussain, 2010.

Hence Bhutto’s’ Strong Hold in Sindh was serious challenge for Zia. In order to neutralize Bhutto's influence in Sindh, he helped to create Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM) (Urdu Speaking urban-based population)

Kukreja, (2003) Language-related terrorism constituted almost 90% of terrorism in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad and 40% in the country.

Almost 30 % of terrorism in Pakistan is attributed to the Deoband SSP and the Shia groups like Sipah-e-Muhammad (SMP). Hence, language and sectarian dynamics explain about 70% of terrorism in Pakistan.

STATICS OF TERRORISM IN KARACHI

TABLE-3

THIS TABLE SHOWS THE STATICS OF TERRORISM IN KARACHI

Analysis of Target Killing Cases - 2011/2012
Political Killing - 2011/2012 Target Killers Arrested

2011/2012

Party Affiliation No. of Killings Party

Affiliation

No. of Accused Arrested
ANP 24 ANP 2
Jamat-e-Islami 2 MQM-A 17
ST 9 L.J 2
MQM-A 86 S.M.P 2
MQM-H 7 S.S.P 2
PPP/PSF 29 TTP 9
PAC 2 S.T 8
KRC 2
OTHERS 15
TOTAL 176 TOTAL 42

Source : CPO Karachi, 2011-12.

This table Show that in these two years maximum number of killed persons was that of the political Killing belongs to MQM Altaf followed by Awami National Party and Pakistan People’s Party. During the same period the maximum number of the target killers arrested belonged to MQM Altaf. This shows that there was fight among various political groups.

TABLE-4

ANALYSIS OF TARGET KILLING CASES

(FROM 1ST JANUARY TO 31ST AUGUST 2013)

Political Killing- 2013 Accused arrested with Affiliation- 2013
Party

Affiliation

No. of Killings Party

Affiliation

No. of Accused Arrested Total Arrested
CID Karachi Police
ANP 9 MQM-A 12 9 21
Jamat-e-Islami 4 L.J 13 - 13
Jiye Sindh 2 S.T 3 - 3
JUI (F) 1 LGW 9 15 24
MQM-A 52 MQM-H 1 - 1
MQM-H 3 SSP - 3 3
Others 1 TTP - 11 11
PML-N 4 ANP - 1 1
PPP/PSF 4 MWM/ISO - 9 9
PTI 1 PPI - 3 3
S.T 15 No Affiliation 3 5 8
TOTAL 96 TOTAL 41 56 97

Source: CPO Karachi, 2011-12.

This Table shows that in 2013 in first 6 months the maximum political killings took place in which MQM Altaf people were killed. The maximum number of target killers belonged to Lashkar-e-Jhangvi followed by MQM Altaf. This shows that either the banned religious outfit has entered into the conflict.

TABLE-5

STRENGTH OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

Police Strength Sanctioned 30,959
Working 27,849
Vacancy 3,110
Police Ranges
  1. East
  2. West
  3. South
Police Districts 6
Police Sub-Division 45
Police Stations 109

Source: CPO Karachi, 2011-12.

Following is the police population ratio of Karachi in comparison of other mega cities of the world.

TABLE-3

POLICE AND POPULATION RATIO IN KARACHI

CITY Population

(In Million)

POLICE

STRENGTH

RATIO
London 7.4 48,661 1: 152
Delhi 16.7 57,500 1: 291
New York 8.2 34,500 1:237
Lahore 10.9 32,600 1: 337
Karachi 19 30,959 1:614

Source: CPO Karachi, 2011-12.

This show that Karachi police is highly under staffed, it needs more manpower.

BRIEF FACTS OF SAFOORAN INCIDENT

On 14-05-2015 SIP Ali Akber stated that on 13-05-2015 @ 09: 25 he received a written message from Gadap base that some unknown persons have fired upon a Bus near Al-Azhar Garden and various people have sustained injuries. On receipt of such information the police mobiles and staff of the police station was directed to the place of incident. Superior officers were also informed about the incident. The necessary evidence was collected from the spot. The body of deceased men and women and injuries were already moved to the nearest the Memon Hospital for first aid. After visiting the spot when the police official reached at the Memon Hospital, huge number of dead bodies and injured people were found placed.

On Orders of the higher authorities, the following officers of District Malir reached at Hospital All officers worked together to prepare the memo of inspection of dead bodies of men and women who were dead in the incident of Safooran. Subsequently, the post-martum of deceased were conducted by Dr. Sheeraz, Dr.Aijaz Ahmed, Lady Doctor Roobina Hassan, Lady Doctor Noor-Un-Nissa under the supervision of Surgeon Dr.Jaleel Qadir. After completion of medical process, the dead bodies were handed over to heirs for burial purpose.

From the up to date investigation, 174 Cr.PC. and post martum reports of MLOs and the statements of different people, it was found that on 13-05-2015. 55 male /female persons of Agha Khan Ismaili Community boarded on community Bus No. JB- 0333. They were going from Al-Azhar Garden to Aisha Manzil at about 09:10 hours, when the Bus reached at Double Pukhta Road, Anar Garden Scheme No.33 Karachi, about 10 unknown terrorists came on 04 Motorbikes and covered by white car containing 4/5 persons, forcibility stopped the Bus and opened: indiscriminate fires with automatic weapons with intention to kill people. As a result 27 male and 18 female were killed and 8 sustained severe injuries. Due to the firing bus was damaged. The terrorists were seen by the number of pedestrian and the persons of vicinity before and after the incident.

The act of these unknown terrorists, helpers, associates, facilitators for killing of both male / female and causing injury and damaging the Bus is tribal u/s302/324/427/109/34. Hence the case against the unknown terrorists was registered.

FIR NO.195/2015 PS SACHAL DISTRICT MALIR KARACHI,

DATED: 13.05.2015 @ 0910 HOURS

1 Date & Time of Report 14.05.2015 @ 2300 hours
2 Name & Address (Report No.43) SIP Ali Akber of PS Sachal District Malir Karachi.
3 Brief condition (With U/ S) 302/324/427/109/34 R/W ATA-7
4 Jurisdiction where incident occurred Double Pukhta Road near Anar Garden Scheme 33 Malir Karachi. with the jurisdiction North East from PS Sachal distance 2.5 Kilometer.
5 If any message received concerned PS or Investigation made by SIO on the spot received or otherwise The message convey to the community people and their relatives to registered FIR against the terrorists but they did not response subsequently the Govt. has taken the action and registered the case FIR.
6 Date & Time of Departure from PS By Doc on 14.05.2015

Source: Police Record, 2015.

VARIOUS OFFENCES

ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE-2013: In the month of December 2013, a police mobile / escort of Mirza Yousuf (Shia Aalim) were parked near Farhan Apartment. Following terrorists started indiscriminate firing upon mobile. Two police officials were martyred due to firing. Terrorist used 9mm pistols.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

855/13 u/s

302/34 PPC r/w

7-ATA

28-12-13

at 2115

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin

i) Umer @ Jawad @

ii) Amir @ Abbas

iii) Imran Gujjar @

Bhatti

Shahra-e-

Faisal

Source: Police Record, 2013.

FIRING ON POLICE MOBILE AT LATIFABAD HYDERABAD- 2014: In the month of Aug 2014, terrorist along with other accused persons attacked upon police mobile with deadly fire arms in the limit of PS A Section Latifabad resultantly three police personnel namely (i) PC Masood Zafar (2) PC Raashid Ali (3) PC Waseem embraced Shahadat and PC David was injured.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

152/2014 u/s 302/324/353 /427/34 PPC r/w 6/7-ATA 06-07-2014 at 2330 i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

iii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin

i) Umer @ Jawad ii) Amir @ Abbas @ Yameen

ii) Sharif (Hyd)

A Section

Latifabad

Source: Police Record, 2014.

HAND GRENADE ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE NEAR SAREENA MARKET-2014: In the year 2014, Saad Aziz was directed to throw hand grenade on a police mobile parked near Sareena Market. The hand grenade and motorcycle were provided to him by Umer @ Haider Abbas. Saad Aziz did so. He (Tahir Minhas) was sitting in a car at that time. PC Tahir Farooq was injured in this incident).

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

367/2014u/s 324/427/34 r/w 3/4 Ex Act r/w 7-ATA 13-09-14

At 2115

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

iii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin

i) Umer @ Jawad @

Abbas

Temoria

Source: Police Record, 2014.

DACOITY IN ABL HEERABD HYDERABAD- 2014: In the month of Oct 2014, he along with other accused persons committed dacoity in ABL Bank Heerabad Hyderabad and looted 25 lacs from the Bank.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

195/2014 u/s 394/395/353/342 PPC 20-10-14

at 0940

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin iii) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik

i) Zaheer @ Chashmato

ii) Amir @ Abbas @ Yameen

iii) Imran @ Bhatti @ Salman

iv) Sharif-Hyd

v) Talha (Killed Hyd) vi) Mistari Pathan vii) Sharmeela

Pathan

Market

Source: Police Record, 2014.

FIRING ON PREEDY POLICE MOBILE – 2015: In the month of March 2015, he along-with other accused persons riding on motorcycles went to M.A Jinnah Road where they fired upon the police officials sitting in police mobile. In this attack three police officials namely (1) ASI Riazat Ali Shah (2) HC Rashid Ali & (3) PC Saeed embraced Shahdat.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

231/2015 u/s 302/324/353 /34 PPC r/w 7-ATA 10-03-15

at 2200

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin iii) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik

i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Abdul Rehman @ Leo King @ Choto

iii) Tayyab

Preedy

Source: Police Record, 2015.

FIRING ON POLICE OFFICIALS AT PAKISTAN CHOWK-2015: The same night after firing upon police mobile they went towards Pakistan Chowk where two police constables were standing by road side. They parked their motorcycles by road side, went near the police constables and killed them by firing with pistol. In this incident (i) HC Shakeel & (ii) PC Mujaheed Hussain were martyred.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

120/2015 u/s 302/324/353/ 34 PPC r/w

7-ATA

10-03-15

at 2112

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik

i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto iii) Tayyab

Aram Bagh

Source: Police Record, 2015.

BLAST AT BHORI MOSQUE ARAM BAGH-2015: In the month of March 2015, on his directives Saad Aziz and other accused persons conducted motorcycles IED blast at Bhori Mosque Aram Bagh. Abdul Mansoori Pathanhad arranged the IED fitted motorcycle and also detonated the IED with remote. Saad Aziz made video of the blast and handed over the memory card to Umer @ Haider Abbas. In this incident two persons namely (i) Shabir Bhai & (ii) Hassnain were killed whereas (i) Shabir Saifullah (ii) Abdullah (iii)Talha & (iv) Daniyal of Bhori Community were injured.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

147/215 u/s 302/324/427/

34 PPC r/w 3/4

Exp Act r/w 7-ATA

20-03-15

at 1350

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin

1) Umer @ Haider Abbas

ii) Abdullah Mansoori iii) Tayyab

Aram Bagh
S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

195/2015 u/s 302/324/427/ 109/34PPC r/w 7-ATA 13-05-15

at 0910

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin iii) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik

i) Umer @ Haider Abbas

ii) Tayyab @ Like Blue iii) All Rehman @

Tona @ Choto iv) Abdullah

Mansoori (Pathan)

v) Mistari Pathan vi) Unknown Pathan vii) Unknown Pathan viii) Dawood

ix) Mehmood

x) Abdullah Yousuf

Sachal

District

Malir

Source: Police Record, 2015.

OTHER DISCLOSERS

MURDER OF CH. SOHAIL AT HYDERABAD-2010: In the end of year 2011 Azeem Ahmed Sheikh @ Asif & Farhan killed one Sohail employee of FIAat Latifabad No.8 Hyderabad on suspicion of being informer. Later on they informed the police official about this killing.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

275/2010 u/s 302 PPC 29-10-2010 at 1230

to 1430

i) Azeem Sheikh @ Asif

ii)Farhan

NIL Section A Latifabad.

Source: Police Record, 2010.

MURDER OF St MANOJ KUMAR AT HYDERABAD-2010: In the year 2010 Azeem Ahmed Sheikh @ Asif & Farhan killed SI Manoj Kumarnear Makki Masjid Heerabad Hyderabad who was performing duty at Market Police Station. Later on they informed me about this case.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

283/2010 u/s 302/353/34 PPC r/w 6/7 ATA i) Azeem Ahmed

Sheikh @ Asif

ii) Farhan

i) Shahmim, Market

Hyderabad

MURDER OF MQM WORKER ASIM ZAIDI AT HYDERABAD-2011: In the year 2011 Azeem Ahmed Sheikh @ Asif & Farhan killed Asim Zaidi worker of MQM Hyderabad at Hill Top Thandi Sarak Hyderabad. Asim Zaidi has business of cable at Latifabad No.7, who some time ago has abused a Muslim scholar at Latifabad No.8 Hyderabad. Later on they informed me about this case.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

03/2011 u/s302/34 PPC Q.Ord 08-01-11 at 1433 i) Azeem Ahmed Sheikh @ Asif

ii) Farhan

Makki Shah

Source: Police Record, 2011.

MURDER OF POLICE SI ADEEL AHMED KHAN NEAR RADO APARTMENT-2013: In the year 2013 Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad, Tahir Pathan, Imran Gujjar @ Bhatti went to Gulistan-e-Johar on two motorcycles. Imran Gujjar @ Bhatti & Tahir fired upon a police man with 9mm pistols who was sitting near Rado Apartment and killed him. Target was given by Hamza. Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

347/2013 u/s

302/34 PPC

15-06-13

at 2315

i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Tahir Pathan

iii) Imran Gujjar @

Bhatti

iv) Sarfaraz @

Hamza

Shahreh-e-Faisal

Source: Police Record, 2013.

BOMB BLAST AT LANDHI- 2013: Few days before the general election 2013, Imran Gujjar @ Bhatti & Zaheer @ Chashmato put a bomb on the roof of cabin at Landhi which was blasted through mobile phone device. Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

47/2013 u/s 302/324/427/3

4 PPC 3/4 ExpAct r/w 7-ATA

i) Imran Gujjar @ Bhatti

ii) Zaheer @ Chashmato

iii) Zakir (Behari)

c/o Imran Gujjar

Landhi

Source: Police Record, 2013.

KILLING OF POLICE OFFICIAL AT LATIFABAD HYDERABAD-2013: In the month of Sep 2013, Chashmato & Imran Bhatti and other accused killed a police man at Latifabad No.6 near Mehmood Gardens Hyderabad. Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

i) Zaheer @ Chashmato

ii) Imran Gujjar @ Bhatti

iii) Talha c/o lmran Gujjar (Killed Hyd)

iv) Amir @ Abbas

Source: Police Record, 2013.

KILLING OF SI NAZEER AT SHAH FAISAL COLONY-2014: In the month of Jan 2014, Sarfaraz @ Hamza along-with others accused persons killed a Si at Shah Faisal Colony Karachi.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

25/2014 u/s 02/34 r/w 7-ATA 22-01-14 at 2000 i) Sarfaraz @ Hamza ii) Umer @ Hafiz @

Jawad

iii) Amir @ Abbas

iv) Imran

Shah Faisal Colony

Source: Police Record, 2014.

SUICIDAL ATTACK ON RANGER CONVOY-2014: In the month of Jan 2014, Imran Bhatti @ other accused person and a suicidal bomber went to Qayyumabad where the suicidal bomber blown himself away near the Rangers Convoy.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

95/2014 u/s 324/427/34

PPC r/w 3/4

Exp Act r/w 7-ATA

14-02-14

at 0920

i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Imran Bhatti (provide suicidal jacket)

iii) Anas (provided suicidal)

KorangiIndustrial

Area

(KIA)

Source: Police Record, 2014.

HAND GRENADE ATTACK AT AYESHA MANZIL IMAM BARGAH-2014: In the month of Oct 2014, Umer @ Jawad & other accused persons thrown hand grenade on the Ayesha Manzil Imam Bargah /Islamic Research Centre in which one chilled Ahsan Batool was killed. Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

244/2014 u/s 302/324/34 PPC r/w 3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-ATA 28-10-14

at 2115

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Imran Bhatti @ Salman

ii) Sharmeela Pathan

iii) Ali Reh man @ Tona @ Choto

Gulberg

Source: Police Record, 2014.

HAND GRENADE ATTACK NEAR KAMRAN CHORANGI IMAM BARGAH-2014: In the month of Oct 2014, Umer @ Jawad & other accused person thrown hand grenade at the Masjid & Imam Bargah Wahat Muslimen Kamran Chorangi Gulistan-e-Johar Later on they informed me about this incident (FIR not lodged).

HAND GRENADE ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE AT NIPA CHORANGI-2014: In the month of Oct 2014, Saad Aziz & other accused person attacked a police mobile with hand grenade at Nipa Chorangi. The mobile was damaged (burnt). Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

526/2014 u/s 353/324/435/

34 PPC r/w 3/4

Exp Act r/w 7-ATA

31-10-14

at 2030

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) All Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

iii) Sharmeela Pathan

iv) Sabir

Gulshan-e-Iqbal

Source: Police Record, 2014.

HAND GRENADE ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE NEAR SUZUKI SHOWROOM M.AJINNAH ROAD-2014: In the month of Nov 2014, Saad Aziz & other accused persons attacked upon a police mobile with hand grenade resultantly police personnel namely (i) HC Shamsul Rehman & (2) PC Mubeen embraced Shahadat whereas PC Faisal Eijaz was injured. The police mobile was completely damaged (burnt). Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

690/2014 u/s

353/324/302/

435/ PPC r/w

3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-ATA

10-11-14

at 2000

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

iii) Sharmeela Pathan

Preedy

Source: Police Record, 2014.

ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE OF BRIGADE PS-2014: In the year 2014, Saad Aziz & other accused persons conducted in discriminate firing upon a police patrol car (white mehran) wherein police officials of Brigade PS were patrolling. Later on they informed me about this incident (In this incident ASI Arshad Tanoli embraced Shahadat whereas (1) PC Ghulam Ali of Brigade PS was injured).

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

249/2014 u/s

302/324/34

PPC r/w 7-ATA

14-11-14

at 0750

hrs

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin ii) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik i) Umer @ Haider

Abbas

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

Brigade

Source: Police Record, 2014.

HAND GRENADE ATTACK ON POLICE MOBILE NEAR AGS PAK BATTERY M.AJINNAH ROAD-2014: In the month of Nov 2014 same day after attack on police mobile of Brigade, Saad Aziz & other accused persons again attacked upon a police mobile with hand grenade on M.A.Jinnah Road. In this incident police personnel namely HC Muhammad Asif was injured. Later on they informed me about this incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

705/2014 u/s 353/324/34

PPC r/w 3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-

ATA

14-11-14

at 0755

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin ii) Asad-ur-Rehman @ Malik i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Jawad

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

Preedy

HAND GRENADE ATTACK ON BECON HOUSE SCHOOL NORTH NAZIMABAD- 2015: In the month of March 2015, Saad Aziz & other accused persons hurled a hand grenade on Becon House School due to which the wall of school was damaged. However, there was no casualty or injury in this incident. Umer @ Haider Abbas also threw (ISIS) Daaishpamphlets at the place of incident.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

53/2015 u/s

3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-ATA

18-03-15

at 1032

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Umer @ Hafiz @ Haider Abbas North

Nazimabad

Source: Police Record, 2015.

FIRING UPON US NATIONAL Ms DEBRA LOBO-2015: In the month of April 2015, Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin and other accused persons fired upon a US Nation Ms Debra Lobo while she was driving her car at Bahadurabad Road. She was injured in this incident. Tayyab also thrown (ISIS) Da-Ish pamphlet at the place of incident. He was aware of the fact that Saad Aziz and his accomplices are going to target the above lady.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

273/2015 u/s 324/34 r/w 7-ATA 17-04-15

at 1502

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Umer @ HaiderAbbas

ii) All Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

iii) Tayyab

iv) Mehmood

Ferozabad

Source: Police Record, 2015.

MURDER OF SABIN MEHMOOD (NGO WORKER) – 2015: In the month of April 2015, Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin and other accused persons fired upon and killed NGO worker Sabin Mehmood at Defence Phase 2, because she was using filthy language against Molana Abdul Aziz of Lal Masjid Islamabad. He was aware of the fact that Saad Aziz and his accomplices are going to kill the above lady.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

214/2015 u/s302/324/34

PPC r/w 7-ATA

25-04-15

at 2130

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Umer @ Haider Abbas

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

iii) Tayyab

iv) Mehmood

Defence

Source: Police Record, 2015.

MURDER OF MOCHI (SHOE REPAIRER)-2015: In the month of May 2015, after the incident of Safoora Goth a cobbler was killed by Saad Aziz @Tin Tin and other accused persons at DHA Karachi on suspicion of being informer of Police. He was aware of the fact that Saad Aziz and his accomplices are going to kill this person.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

227/2015 u/s

324/34 PPC

17-05-15

at 1930

i) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin i) Tayyab

ii) Mehmood

Gizri

Source: Police Record.

NOTE: In all the above disclosed criminal activities and acts of terrorism the information and directives were being provided and issued by him (Tahir Minhas). Directly or indirectly he was connected with each and every case.

S
FIR NO & U/S DATE OF

OFFENCE

ARRESTED NOT ARRESTED POLICE

STATION

88/2015 u/s 353/324/427/34 PPC, 3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-ATA 20-05-15

at 0600 to 0730

i) Tahir Hussain Minhas @ Uncle @ Sain Tona

ii) Saad Aziz @ Tin Tin

iii) Hafiz Nasir @ Yasir

iv) Azhar Ishrat

i) Umer @ Haider Abbas

ii) Ali Rehman @ Tona @ Choto

iii) Tayyab@ Like Blue

iv) Abdullah Mansoori

CT&FCIU,

CTD Sindh, Karachi.

PRESENT CRIMINAL RECORD OF CTD CIVIL LINE KARACHI

S# FIR No. U/s DATE OF OFFENCE POLICE STATION
1 88/2015 353/324/427/34 PPC, 3/4 Exp Act r/w 7-ATA 20-05-2015 CT&FCIU, CTD
2 89/2015 23-(i)A SAA 20-05-2015 CT&FCIU, CTD
3 88/2015 353/324/427/34 PPC, 3/4 Exp Act r/w7-ATA 20-05-2015 CT&FCIU, CTD
4 89/2015 23-(i)/ASAA 20-05-2015 CT&FCIU, CTD

CONCLUSION

Terrorism is complex Phenomena which can only be tackled through reforming police and judicial system. Further co-operation between various agencies of law enforcement has become indispensable for dealing with terrorism.

Karachi’s history is rampant with the incidents of terrorism. In most cases youth has been involved by certain elements. Acts of terrorism are sponsored by religious and political forces. International links have also been identified in this study.

Understaffing and lack of proper training have been identified as main factors for the lack of control over growing acts of terrorism in our country. Thus, reforming police, judicial system can enable us to eliminate terrorism.

RECOMMENDATIONS

From the analysis of primary data of accused of Safoora incident and secondary data of terrorism, the study recommends following:

  1. Acts of terrorism in our country is linked to international terrorism. Therefore, there must be co-ordination and cooperation between various international agencies to contain the growing terrorism.
  2. The one of the accused was arrested earlier but he was let off by the courts due to in sufficient evidence, therefore, there is need to effectively reform police, investigation and judicial system to bring the perpetrator to justice.
  3. It was found in the study that all accused were Information Technology (IT) literate and highly qualified persons. They did not get education in Madrasah but got education in English medium Schools of Aand O level. Therefore, State should various measures to engage youth in positive activities. Government must take initiative to secure campuses by controlling various extremist forces.
  4. State need to build and promote its counter extremism and counter terrorism narrative at educational institutions through conferences and seminars.

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