Volume 55 Issue 1

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Grassroots Title.jpg
Title of Grassroots
DisciplineSocial Sciences
Blind Peer Review
Edited byShuja Ahmed Mahesar
Publication details
Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh Jamshoro (Pakistan) (Pakistani)
Open Access
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN1726-0396 (print)
2521-456X (web)
24 weeks

Admissibility of a Video As Evidence in a Court: its Presentation and Probative Value

Author: Rajput, Muhammad Arif
To general public, all videos are perceived to be true, but they may not have probative value in the Court of law. The undertaken article analyzes the admissibility and probative value of a video presented as evidence before a court in the Criminal Justice System of Pakistan (CJSP). It analyzes the relevant law and diagnoses the problems with the video evidence through the lens of the judgments of Superior Courts. The court of law objectively ascertains that a video presented as evidentiary means bears significant relevance to the fact in question. It must be admissible under the law, and it must be proved to be genuine. To fill up the gap between a “Video” and a “Video Evidence”, there is a process, which is known as video authentication. It determines that the video contents are genuine, authentic, credible, unaltered, untampered and unfabricated. The study discusses various modes of video authentication. Precedents set by superior courts of Pakistan show that convictions have been made once the courts are satisfied with the credibility of video evidence. In the court of law, video evidence is normally presented after the completion of prosecution evidence. The video is played in court and is watched by the presence. But the researcher establishes that such process does not have legal justification. The article suggests that it would be legal and proper for the prosecution to produce the video evidence through the witness, during his evidence, who is either victim, witness, recorded and/or copied the video directly from original source such as C.C.T.V system and that witness would be subjected to cross examination.

Impact of Covid-19 As a Pandemic on Various Industries: A Conceptual Paper

Author: Shaikh, Sadia, Muhammad Faisal Sultan, Tasleem Arif
Pandemics always create dreadful effects not only on human life but also drastically influence businesses and industries. Historical evidence has apparently indicated that the outbreak of Spanish flu, SARS, MERS, and Ebola viruses, all created radical impacts on businesses around the globe, leaving behind the economic structures into miseries and deprivations. Similar is the case of COVID-19 outbreak which instigated from China and dispersed all over the globe. In Pakistan, the first case was reported in March 2020 and since then the government has relentlessly tried to impose lockdown and social distancing in order to avert the harm. It has been substantiated that the public isolations and lockdowns have not only yielded negative impacts on the economy but also on different forms of business and employment. Therefore, this study is aimed to analyze potential impacts of COVID-19 on different forms of industries in Pakistan through gathering the public opinion as the source of data. The study is one of the preliminary studies therefore it is based on descriptive design in order to show perceived impact of outbreak of virus. Results indicated that the pandemic is harmful and affecting most of the business in negative manner however there are some businesses which are burgeoning on opportunities emerged from the pandemic and attaining growth due to the spread of the virus.

An Agglomeration Benefits of Oil and Gas Firms: An Exploratory Study Through Industrial Cluster

Author: Kalhoro, Maryam, Dahshila Junejo, Sanobar Salman Shaikh
The research investigates the agglomeration pattern of seven national, international oil and gas extraction and production companies through an exploration of oil and gas cluster components and subcomponents. For this exploratory study, data is collected through primary sources via in-depth interviews from managers of national and international oil and gas MNCs working in Sindh, Pakistan and through secondary sources of business reports. The content analysis is adopted to analyze the data. Results of this study reveal that there is strong existence of exploration and production companies which results in agglomeration, however, other components of oil and gas cluster like refineries, marketing companies, supporting institutes, media and government poorly exist in Sindh province of Pakistan. Findings also highlight that the Sindh as a resource-rich region is still underdeveloped due to poor management of resources or because of the absence of ideal oil and gas cluster components and coordination among them in the region.

The Musharraf Formula (Back Channel Formula) and the Resolution of the Kashmir Conflict

Author: Rid, Saeed Ahmed
The Musharraf formula refers to the resolution formula of the Kashmir conflict which was reportedly agreed upon during the one-to-one backchannel dialogue between Mr. Tariq Aziz, the former civil servant and close aide of the then President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf and Mr.Satinder Lambah, a special envoy of the Prime Minister of India. We now know some of the details of this formula from the article of the American journalist, Steve Coll which he had published in New Yorker in March 2009 and the book of Mr.Khursheed Mahmud Kasuri, Neither a Hawk, Now a Dove which was published in 2015. Prior to this Mr.Musharraf and Mr.Kasuri had already claimed in their TV interviews and press talks that by March 2007 India and Pakistan were very close to resolving the Kashmir conflict. This paper takes the details of that non-paper agreement and tries to study what exactly that agreement holds for the future resolution of the Kashmir conflict. The basic understanding is whenever the Pakistani and the Indian governments will take up the negotiations on the Kashmir conflict in future, this agreement is bound to come up in the talks as a starting reference point. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully look at this agreement and discuss what it entails for the resolution of the Kashmir conflict.

Factors Affecting Human Rights in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Author: Khan, Hashmat Ullah, Yan Zhen, Muhammad Naeem
In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the situation of human rights is comparatively worse. Factors affecting human rights in this province include failure to guarantee good governance, growing poverty, illiteracy, violence, terrorism, worsening security, social injustice, political instability, and economic turmoil. These factors have been affecting adversely the human rights. To ensure human rights in the province, the execution of international human rights laws needs to be implemented. It is required to ensure good governance, peace and stability to ensure viable environment, provision of sustainable and quality education and reduce poverty. Unless the favourable environment be provided to the people at large, human rights violations may be continued. This paper attempts to know about the factors affecting human rights in the province and present some solid recommendations and policy options.

An Existential Anthropological Study of Selfhood, Uncertainty and Resilience Among Youth of Tando Ghulam Ali, Sindh

Author: Shah, Ali Taqui, Abdul Razaque Channa, Syed Faisal Hyder Shah
This study combines three orientations, namely existential thought about the meaning of ‘being’ and ‘existence,’ phenomenological insights into ‘lived experience,’ and anthropological endeavor at what it means to be human. It attempts to focus on the human conditions by directly engaging with human beings. Specifically guiding itself with the questions such as how young people engage in the meaning-making of their lived experiences in their life course’s ever-changing process. Taking its theoretical insights and inspiration from existential and phenomenological anthropology, by zooming in on lived experiences, the research was conducted using life story interviews to collect the narratives to gain understandings into the life-worlds as it is lived and made sense of by young people of Tando Ghulam Ali, a rural town of District Badin, Sindh. Based on the ethnographic data and observations, it is argued that the meaning-making of lived experiences was different among research participants with a strong presence of selfhood and self-consciousness temporally and affectively; the difference in orientation towards life is entangled with personal history as well. This research went beyond the horizons of culture and society to put existence, life, and being, which are silhouetted at meta-level, at the heart of anthropological focus. This research is an experimental research project in anthropology, which has attempted to step its foot into the human condition's terra incognita, which calls for anthropologists’ further exploration.

Birth Ordinal and Trust on Close Interpersonal Relationship: A Comparative Study of First and Last Born Individuals

Author: Memon, Parvasha, Muniza Malik
The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the level of trust in close interpersonal relationships among first born and last-born individuals. The sample of the present study was comprised of 120 participants (first born=60; last born=60). Data was collected through purposive random sampling. The age range of the participants in the present study was 20-45 years and both genders were given equal representation. Trust level of the participants was measured through Trust in close interpersonal relationship scale. Personal Information Questionnaire was also used to gather the information about the characteristics of participants such as age, birth ordinal, gender, education etc. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the trust level of first born and last born. Findings revealed significant differences in the trust level of first born and last-born participants. Last born participants have more trust in interpersonal relationship. Gender differences were also found in the trust level. Females have more trust than males. The implications of the study have discussed in terms of child-rearing practices.

Identity Negotiation of Female Esl Learners: Communities of Practice Perspective

Author: Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza, Sumera Umrani
This qualitative study employs Communities of Practice (Lave& Wenger, 1991) framework to map out how female learner identity is built and negotiated within Post-colonial Pakistan. The study traces out the ongoing identity struggles of young Pakistani female ESL learners at The Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL), University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from a broadly poststructuralist perspective .Data analysis and interpretation were guided by CoP framework which views learner as essentially part and parcel of the learning environment within which learning takes places. The data revealed a complex picture of Female English Language Learner Identity (FELLI), as diverse subject positions emerged while the participants developed a sense of alignment with different CoP and displaying acts of resistance to counter discrimination. Higher education appeared as a site of identity negotiation and transition into new CoP for the participants. The participants demonstrated signs of social, linguistic and academic participation in as participating members of academic CoP.

Analyzing the Impact of Lady Health Worker Program on Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Community With a Lady Health Worker in Sindh Province

Author: Shah, Ghulam Rasool, Ghulam Ali Jariko
The study aims to analyze impact of Lady Health Worker program on use of maternal health services in community with a lady health worker. The main focus was the rural districts of Sindh for this case study. The maternal health service is determined by at least four Antenatal care (ANC) visits provided to mother and receipt of at least two Tetanus Toxoid (TT) injections to mother during pregnancy. These have direct impact on maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. Secondary data pertaining to all districts of Sind for three years (2017-2019) was collected from the Sindh Lady Health Worker program office Hyderabad for analysis purpose. Further secondary data of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2017-18) was also used to see the impact of intervention of LHW program implemented by Ministry of Health Pakistan in 1994 and then devolved to provinces after the implementation of 18th Constitutional Amendment in 2010. The study found that the services provided by the lady health workers in communities in these districts has positively influenced the uptake of maternal health services as determined by the variables like antenatal visits by pregnant mothers to nearest health facilities and receipt of Tetanus Toxoid injection during pregnancy.

Vulnerability of Women in Disasters: A Case Study of District Badin

Author: Khaskhelly, Nosheen, Shuhabuddin Mughal, Erum Khushnood
The climate change is universal phenomenon, its severe impact can be clearly observed in poor countries having mainly dependence on natural resources and having limited coping strategies for extreme climate change. Given the role of women in society, they tend to face more damages in terms of reduction in their income level, saving pattern and the level of education in disaster prone areas. This article examines the impact of disaster on women. The data for study is collected through questionnaire from district Badin of Sindh province. The findings of study revealed that income level of household is affected after disaster, and households who were low at saving pattern are affected more than households with high savings. To combat the impact of disaster on women the government should initiate awareness drive to respond the disaster related vulnerabilities.

Domestic Violence Against Female Beggars in Hyderabad District: A Case Study Qasimabad

Author: Shah, Syeda Qurat Ul Ain, Parveen Shah, Aijaz Ali Wassan
This Paper analyses the causes of the domestic violence against female beggars and their impacts on their lives. The paper is strictly limited to Taluka Qasimabad, District Hyderabad. The domestic violence against women exits in various forms. However, it is pretty horrible in the form being inflicted against female beggars in Qasimabad. The scores of causes for the domestic violence against female beggars range from rising poverty to population explosions with deep physical and mental impacts on the sufferers. For data collection qualitative research through Focused Group discussion method has been used through snow ball technique. 10 Cases of female beggars have been opted for the FGDs out of which two participated with their social backgrounds. The study concludes the pathetic condition of the female beggars due to multiple factors and their serious implications both physically as well as mentally. The study recommends prompt action from the Government as well as social scientist to go deep further in the social issues such as violence against the female beggars. Simultaneously there is immediate intervention of Government and the concerned department to address these issues on emergent basis as the number is likely to reach an alarming level.

A Study of Socio-Economic Problems Faced by Labors in Brick Kiln: A Case Study of District Hyderabad (Rural)

Author: Pahawar, Ghazala, Shabana Tunio, Muhammad Ali Shaikh
The present study investigates the socio-economic problems of the labors in Brick Kilns which are situated in the vicinities of district Hyderabad (Rural). Eighty three respondents from twenty five brick kilns were selected for interview. It is found that majority of the respondents was illiterate and never visited educational, technical and religious institutions. The economic categorization of the labors revealed that majority was categorized as ‘poorest of poor’ (living below poverty line), having semi-pacca houses, earning less than 10,000 rupees per month to manage their entire family. Due to very low income they spent least amount on education and health while more on food and utilities. The general problems reported by the labors are: poor quality of drinking water, no shelter at work place, child labor, low and late payment of wages, long working hours etc. Besides these, both male and female labors informed about misbehave and use of abusive language by the owner/manager, even few of them also complained about physical abuse. Stomach problem was found as common disease in men followed by Anemia whereas in women Anemia was ranked first followed by Backache.

Contestations and Transformations: the Shared Religious Space of Jhule Lal in Sindh, Pakistan

Author: Shah, Muhbat Ali, Aisha Anees Malik
Syncretic and shared religious spaces have long been perceived as reflections of tolerance. This does not imply that tolerance is completely liberated from multiple clashing components and the coexistence of interfaith practices do not suggest that hostility is entirely missing. In recent times, a transformation is taking place at the shared space of the Jhule Lal by the dominant religious group. However, there remains an appearance of tolerance at the shared space of the Jhule Lal among believers of both Islam and Hinduism, which blinds the observer of the deep internal contestation and process of transformation between both Sindhi Hindus and Sindhi Muslims who revere the same saint of the Jhule Lal. A syncretic space does not simply absorb different religious groups, and by studying the practices, rituals and interactions of the custodians, visitors and devotees at the shrine, this paper aims to unearth the processes through which shrine is contested in multiple identities, discourse (written, textual, verbal) authority, and belief systems.

The Life and Achievements of Hyder Bux Jatoi, With an Special Reference to His Social and Political Contributions

Author: Jatoi, Daleel Khan, Muhammad Farshad, Uzma Murad Panhwar
Comrade Hyder Bux Jatoi, also known as ‘Baba e Sindh’, was the most prominent leader of the farmer societies of pre-independence Pakistan. Although he was a bureaucrat turned into a farmer activist, but later he played a very important role in the social and political settings of the country at that time. Most of the Pakistani people remember him as a sign of change and renovation in the agricultural history of Pakistan. This was a great effort to credit the front-runners and their struggle; it is very prominent among the laborers and landless leaders of the world. He devoted his entire life to set peace up for the struggle of land ownership rights to dispossessed farmers, and highlighted the cause, to be noticed by the notables. The vision of Mr. Jatoi is still reflected in many situations when initiatives are taken by the various governments of the world to provide the masses with the basic requirements of development and peace.

Terrorism in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan: A Case Study of Safoora-Incident

Author: Abbasi, Sanaullah
Terrorism is contentious issue. It has affected the lives of people across the country. This paper analyses the factors for incidence of terrorism in Karachi city which has great economic importance for country. The city represents all communities belonging to various parts of the country. Migration of people from other provinces has significally changed demographic profile of the city. This study presents statistics about various offences committed in Hyderabad and Karachi. It describes important facts about the militant groups involved in the acts of terrorism in Karachi. It has been argued in the study that in some cases the acts of violence were politically motivated and in other cases terrorism acts were sponsored by religious groups. In order to understand the complex phenomenon of terrorism in Karachi, this study investigates the root causes of terrorism including economic deprivation. In most cases marginal sections of society have been found involved in the acts of terrorism. Thus, this study creates need for social reforms, poverty alleviation and provision of quality education. Further capacity-building of Law Enforcement Agencies to cope with this situation has been emphasized in this study. This paper also recommends some proposals for dealing with the issue of terrorism.