Volume 53 Issue 1

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Grassroots 
Grassroots Title.jpg
Title of Grassroots
DisciplineSocial Sciences
Blind Peer Review
LanguageEnglish
Edited byShuja Ahmed Mahesar
Publication details
History1976-present
Publisher
Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh Jamshoro (Pakistan) (Pakistani)
FrequencyBiannual
Open Access
ISO 4Find out here
Indexing
ISSN1726-0396 (print)
2521-456X (web)
Links
None
None
24 weeks

Untamed Subjectivity upon Blasphemy: Comparative Subjectivity of the National and International English and National Urdu Print Media upon Reporting a Blasphemy Case in Pakistan

Author: Mehmood, Sadia, Kashif Ghani Syed
Objectivity of news have always been a debate, even the trusted source of information, the newspapers are not ‘clean’ so to say. Contrary to the codes of neat journalism, news reports are often found reflecting ideological, economic, regional, religious and pre-determined viewpoints. In the current study the researcher has purposely picked the blasphemy case of Aasiya Bibi from year 2010 involving Salman Taseer (late), then the Governor of Punjab and Mumtaz Qadri (late) the member of elite police force who shot Mr.Taseer and was later hanged in 2016. The researcher analyzed level of subjectivity in the news stories and editorial of two international and three national newspapers, The Guardian, The New York Time and The Dawn, Daily Jang and the Daily Express respectively. Through the scientific method of analyzing the content it is observed that in such cases, even the pioneers of print medium and the self-proclaimed champions of the codes of journalism are found overwhelmingly subjective.

China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Sahar, Saba, Naghma Mangrio
Pak-China relations have been exemplary in the contemporary international politics. Both States have been maintaining strong ties in terms of diplomatic and military cooperation. However, the close economic cooperation has added a new dimension in the Pak-China all weather partnership. Over the years, China and Pakistan strategic cooperation has evolved at unprecedented level. In the year 2013, the Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the construction of One Belt One Road (OBOR) that aims to connect China with West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia and Middle East. It is a bitter fact that, since 9/11 Pakistan has suffered in socio-political and especially in economic dimension. The regional security environment and rise of extremism and terrorism has resulted into the hampering economic development. Therefore, the CPEC project will prove to be game changer and when completed it will have deep impact on economic development of Pakistan in future. The CPEC provides an opportunity for Pakistan to stabilize its society and reshape its positive image at international level from fragile State to emerging economy in the South Asian region. The rise of China in economic sphere has been jealously seen by other developed countries while for Pakistan it has been a blessing factor. Thus, Pak- China strategic partnership entered into the new phase of economic cooperation that will certainly change the dynamics of the regional politics. This paper aims to discuss the multiple dimensions of CPEC its importance for Pakistan and China along with its internal and external challenges. Moreover, economic and security perspectives will be focused in detail. To fully understand the role of CPEC as driving force of economic prosperity, this paper discusses its potential as a game changer for both China and Pakistan. ___________

Ecd Educators Outlook on Early Years Curriculum and Pedagogy Fostering Children’s Holistic Development

Author: Jumani, Rozina, Ahmad Saeed
The main purpose of the study was to explore educators' views on children's the early years' curriculum and pedagogy implemented in Pakistan. This research study is grounded in qualitative design i.e. case study. The case included examining educators, the early years' and school managers' critical reflections on children's learning and development during the early years' education. This research study is first of its kind in the context of Pakistan as the early years teachers' views about their teaching practices have rarely incorporated in recent studies. The main finding of this study was that curriculum and pedagogies used in early years' program has never been concentrated earlier as potential research themes. Though many research studies have been conducted on the implementation of ECE programs, but not any specific study concentrated on matching curriculum goals with its implementation to facilitate children's holistic development. It was learnt that national curriculum framework 2007 is not followed in most ECE classes. The main reason was found that many practitioners i.e. educators and managers have not seen or read it. Consequently, national philosophy is compromised while nurturing children holistically It is therefore recommended for teachers and educators to study the national and now provincial curriculum framework because it has set a benchmark as what to achieve and suggested how to achieve the goals.

Post-Independence Colonial Impacts on the Political Development of Pakistan: The Bureaucracy

Author: Shaikh, Irfan Ahmed, Bashir Ahmed Jatoi, Abdul Rahman Nizamani
The ethos of every postcolonial country was shaped by the way in which it secured its independence, therefore in analyzing the political development of Pakistan from its creation one must consider the related development of India prior to Partition, exploring the nature of colonial rule and it’s far reaching impacts on the political development of Pakistan after independence. While India has seen innumerable kingdoms rise and fall and many waves of invasions, the British encroachment in India from the 18th century onwards, particularly the direct incorporation of India as the jewel of the British Empire in 1857, was unique in that it wrenched the locus of political and economic control away from the Subcontinent to Europe. However, many British residents in India ‘went native’, by adopting local religion and culture. The British loved India, whether residents such as Rudyard Kipling or the ruling elite in Britain (e.g. Queen Victoria had Indian servants and companions). The British cultivated an elite group of administrators from the powerful indigenous landowners and middle-class professionals (the latter of whom were mainly from Hindu castes), which helped the British to consolidate their vested interests to strengthen their rule in India. The amalgamated British army consisted of Indian and British soldiers under the command of British officers. This paper discusses in detail the impacts of British colonial rule in the Subcontinent with special reference to post-independence Pakistan drawing on archival records and other written materials on the subject.

Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products

Author: Memon, Muhammad, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Rajkumar, Rameez Haider Solangi
This research articulates the influence of advertising on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products. Aim of conducting this study was to analyze the impact of advertising liking and advertising attitude on consumer buying behavior, mainly to investigate that either the advertisements are effective to convince the people to spend money on conspicuous products or to influence their buying behavior. Findings of this research will be beneficial to overcome the problem of advertisers focusing more on advertisements contents and effectiveness of advertisements. In order to investigate this, data was collected by showing different advertisements to the responders and it was asked for to fill up the questionnaire. According to our findings, there is a significant and positive influence of advertising on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products. Which means that it contributes much in influencing consumer buying behavior through both national product advertisements and international products advertisements.

A Post Structural Inquiry into Female Esl Learners’ Gender Identities at a Public University in Pakistan

Author: Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza, Sumera Umrani
The present study investigates how English language learning interacts with the gender identities and roles of female learners at the University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Who learns what and how, is influenced by the learners’ gendered and sexualized identities (Pavlenko, 2004). Language learners have to navigate power relations within the classroom and their specific communities and develop understanding of their limitations and opportunities within these communities. Institutional practices and gender ideologies inhibit their access to networks which in turn affect their linguistic output and interactional opportunities. Within Interpretive epistemological framework eight female learners of final year (fourth year) Linguistics studying at IELL were interviewed and observed twice during one year to gather data for the present study. From the data it appeared that Pakistani females’ access to linguistic resources is mediated by cultural norms and societal expectations. Throughout their academic journeys the learners’ agency remained active due to which they were able to invest in their ESL learning and challenge socially imposed identities on them.

Performance of Mansabdari System under the Successors of Emperor Jalal-Ud-Din Muhammad Akbar

Author: Bilal, Fakhar, Shuja Ahmed Mahesar, Yasir Ali
The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of mansabdari system under the successors of Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. The paper is focused on the mansabdari system which was developed and strengthened during the reign of Akbar. It can be argued that the mansabdari was an integrated system of efficient and loyal servants on the disposal of Akbar for the large expansion of his empire. The successors of Akbar tried to capture the spirit of Akbar’s age and reign in all respects but without much success. The system remained intact with central authority during Akbar’s days. The paper indicates that after the death of Akbar, the mansabdars started defying the authority of governors as well as the successors of Akbar. In this research attempt the performance of mansabdari system under the successors of Akbar i.e. Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb will be analyzed.

A Study of Stress Factors and Their Impact on Students’ Academic Performance at University Level

Author: Soomro, Mansoor Ahmed, Muneeruddin Soomro, Ghulam Akbar Mahesar, Sana Rani
The main emphasis of the study is on the academic performance and the stress management in applied science among the students of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Sindh University Campus Dadu. What is the level of stress on the academic success of the students? How does it affect their lifestyle and health? This is what the research study covers to counteract the general stress among the students. The purpose of the study is to inquire and bring light to measure and check the present stress among students of the university. While doing the research a quantitative method was applied for collecting and analyzing the data. The Questionnaires were distributed among different students for this purpose. Innumerable factors of stress were found in the results and the factors were grouped in four categories which are;-Environmental Factors, Academic Factors, and Personal Factors. In environmental factors, the stress was about the happening the fate in the future. The students were found worried about future that what would happen about their fate? How it will happen? What is about to happen? When they came into contact with the new people it raised their stress. Also the class workload was the main reason for the stress among the students regarding academic factors. When the students were experiencing the workload of the class the group of the students came under stress. The last factor was a personal factor which was mainly due to the financial problem among the students. The stress of all categories can be managed through stress management courses and doing different extracurricular activities which will help to divert the attention of the students on different occasions. This study has drawn significant conclusions and Suggests further measures for practitioners which could help other to manage stress. The limitations are also mentioned so that those who are conducting research for the similar cases can extract better results and ways of curbing stress. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect the response from students, the five-point Likert scale was used from strongly agree to strongly disagree. SPSS-21 version was used to interpret the results through different quantitative techniques like descriptive, regression, and correlation. ____________

Impact of Military Wars/Conflicts on Pakistan-India Relations

Author: Shaikh, Shahzeb, Afshan Iqbal, Asghar Dashti
South Asia and Indian subcontinent have historically been regions of geo-strategic importance. They have been the most sought-after territories for every major World Player in each era. As a result of independence from the British in 1947, Pakistan and India emerged as two sovereign states, however, at loggerheads with each other since their very inception. The two countries have fought four deadly wars (1947-48, 1965 & 1971), including one (Kargil) after attaining the status of nuclear powers. One commonality in all these wars has been the unresolved Kashmir Issue, which remains the sorest point in the Pak-India ties to-date. These wars and many others military conflicts have resulted in the breach of peace for the region causing a much-feared nuclear threat, economic losses, disruption of social and cultural ties etc. For greater world peace, Pakistan and India need to resolve their differences/issues through bilateral negotiations, as war is no solution to any problem. For this purpose, political leadership of both the countries will have to intelligently carve out a plan to achieve the objective of peace and tranquility in the region. Both the countries need to realize that neighbours cannot be wished away. Peace in South Asia is synonymous to peace in the world.

Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Performance: A Conceptual and Literature Review

Author: Shaikh, Erum, Imamuddin Khoso, Fida Chandio
Sustainable development is considered as or can be one of the ways in achievement, progress, and benefit for organizations. Organizations use and utilize this source to require a system on which they can rely upon and keeping in mind the end goal to recognize openings and associated risks and to make, realize, control, and upgrade the sustainable goals of corporations which to be both progressively viable (for themselves and the overall population) and increasingly productive in terms of monetary. Based on the content analysis and literature review, this paper review and proposed the conceptual framework on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its effect on Organizational Performance of Pakistan’s retail banks. It is conceptual type of research which possesses four hypotheses, first Independent Variable is CSR and Four Dependent Variables such as, Organizational Performance (OP), Financial Performance (FP), Employee Commitment (OC) and Organizational Reputation (OR) and these are not proven in this research. This paper suggests that by initiating the practices of corporate social responsibility can improve the performance of the organization and also increase its financial position, commitment level of the employees and improve the overall reputation or the company. Different literature suggests that this research could be done with primary as well as secondary sources sometimes the researchers have used mixed form of methodologies, this study is based on secondary data using internet which is one of the powerful tools to generate the data. Researchers conclude and give some suggestions for the future research work with the discussion on previous literature review.

Harmony and Peace Education in Pakistan: Focus on Pctb Textbooks of History and Pakistan Studies

Author: Sandhu, Akhtar Hussain, Rafi Raza Sanghro, Shahbaz Ahmad, Pirah Zulfiqar
Textbooks produce specific minds so are believed the best way to promote peace and harmony in a society. Policymakers draw ideological lines for specific goals and educate the coming generations through the contents of the textbooks. Whatever agenda a nation has, peace and social harmony cannot be compromised so syllabi mean to promote nationalism along with integration. Although history and social studies textbooks address coexistence and tolerance but even then many writers share their reservations about some points. K K Aziz (1993) in Pakistan castigated the governments and the textbook authors on ‘distortion’ of the historical events and deleting important segments of history from the syllabi. Mariam Chughtai shared her reservation regarding the textbooks being published in Pakistan. Romila Thapar in India raised objections against the BJP government’s effort of ‘religionising the syllabi’ and tried her best to introduce non-communal approach based on social harmony in the textbooks while writing history books but her effort remained a mere desire because the ‘religiously’ extremist political party occupying the main corridor of the national government and having no compatibility with her ideas refused to accept the undisputed historical facts. Dr. Mubarak Ali opined while writing on the textbooks that ‘defective textbooks create a defective mindset. Ideology limits people from acquiring new knowledge in order to understand the fast changing world’ (Dawn, April 16, 2016). ‘National History’ reflects national point of view to produce a generation who represents some specific land, culture, religion, political ideology, art and social ethics. Children are taught to grow with their own culture, religion and social norms. This study finds that syllabus of the subjects of History and Pakistan Studies produced by the Punjab Curriculum and Textbook Board (PCTB) aims at educating the ‘national interpretation of history along with respect for other religious groups’ to the posterity therefore no gaps seem in the textbooks of History and Pakistan Studies. Criticism arises mostly on the old textbooks while the PCTB had revised the textbooks massively and all the historical periods including Indus Valley Civilization, ancient India, Sikh rule, etc. are being taught at the school and college level. The ‘history textbook’ is not a ‘history’ rather it offers interpretation of the historical events.This article further pinpoints some issues such as communal interpretations in the British India, space in the textbooks, administrative, social, political and religious narrations, and the undeniable position on nationalism and patriotism which cannot be overlooked. The textbooks are playing their role in promoting social harmony and this policy has resulted in a coexistence, tolerance and peace in the society.

Role of Gender Variances in Job Satisfaction of Employee Working in Public Sector Universities

Author: Keerio, Noresh, Nizamuddin Channa, Hakim Ali Mahesar
This research aims to investigate the association of gender dissimilarities and job satisfaction among employees working in public sector Universities. Structural equation modeling approach using Smart PLS is employed to test hypotheses on 410 samples of university officers. The findings reveal that the gender differences have positive relationship with employee job satisfaction. Moreover, there are various factors alike organizational commitment, working conditions which are not considered in this research. Furthermore, current research has stressed on the significance of HR practices in public sector universities to manage diversity. The research implications suggest that authorities relating to public sector universities private banking sector of Pakistan needs to pay attention on rewards and recognition activities as employees expect rewards according to their efforts.

Nawaz Sharif’s Speeches to the United Nations General Assembly: A Corpus-Based Analysis

Author: Sultan, Ameer, Ayaz Afsar, Mubarak Ali Lashari
Every year heads of different states make their speeches in the general debate of United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). They address national and international issues and suggest measures to resolve them with the help of international community and the United Nations. Muhammad Nawaz Sharif also made speeches in the UNGA. In 2013, he was newly elected prime minister and was enthusiastic to resolve issues with India. There was no internal political pressure on him at that time and the government in India was hostile towards Pakistan. But one year in power and embattled with domestic issues and international pressure, the prime minster approached the issues differently in his 2014 speech. The aim of this paper is to compare his two speeches and see what changes occurred in his stance towards India. The main focus of the analysis is: Who is the addressee of these speeches? How confident did Nawaz feel about the solution of the issues that he raised?. The Corpus tool Wmatrix has been used to analyze the data. The results show significant differences in his two speeches with regard to his stance towards India.

E-Commerce and its Effects in Supply Chain Management

Author: Ali, Mumtaz, Ameer Ali Abro, Shahzaib Mumtaz, Niaz Ahmed Bhutto
E-Commerce in today’s world is playing an important role in global business. A quantitative and quantitative research was conducted with professional members, employees working in organization which are dealing with E-Business or online working via internet and their views gave an empirical and dynamic approach to make business efficient and effective. Connectivity with market to find best manufacture for goods and for manufacture to finds its buyer for their finished goods. Flow of information become faster and gathering of data become easier to make activities of business to get optimal results. Numbers of goods are available complications to finds goods are removed by complimentary goods. Supplies of goods at proper time in order to meet demand by consumer plays win to win game. Improved methods of technology like RFID make work easier and accessible information about goods to management. Manpower in forms of labor is reducing which leads to decrease in the cost of goods. Ordering cost saves time and gives a specified time both producers to make commodity and consumer for delivery of goods. E-Commerce with contrast of components of supply chain in the form of ware house, logistics, number of listing suppliers, number of listing items on one web in the form of website on one platform give dynamic image to businesses in the race of competitive world. Business transactions done with internet not only reduce time but also make documents or records for longer time able to send data from distant parts of the world. Through websites we can get completive price information and other relevant information for goods.

Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth

Author: Jalalani, Rahib Ali, Naimatullah Shah
The aim of this research is to assess the impact of social capital on civic engagement. The quantitative method was applied to measure impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The survey instrument was applied to collected data from undergraduate student of four general Universities of Pakistan. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was applied to measure impact of bridging, bonding social capital and trust on civic engagement. Results indicate that bonding social capital and trust have strong association with civic engagement, however, association between bridging social capital and civic engagement was found insignificant. The analyses indicate that it is a basic requirement to bring immediately policy reforms in context of youth development and create more opportunities for youth to engage in the social and structural development of society.