Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Grassroots
Title Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth
Author(s) Jalalani, Rahib Ali, Naimatullah Shah
Volume 53
Issue 1
Year 2019
URL Link
Keywords Youth, Civic Engagement, Bonding Social Capital, Bridging Social Capital, Trust
Chicago 16th Jalalani, Rahib Ali, Naimatullah Shah. "Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth." Grassroots 53, no. 1 (2019).
APA 6th Jalalani, R. A., Shah, N. (2019). Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth. Grassroots, 53(1).
MHRA Jalalani, Rahib Ali, Naimatullah Shah. 2019. 'Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth', Grassroots, 53.
MLA Jalalani, Rahib Ali, Naimatullah Shah. "Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth." Grassroots 53.1 (2019). Print.
Harvard JALALANI, R. A., SHAH, N. 2019. Social Capital’s Impact on Civic Engagement: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Youth. Grassroots, 53.

Abstract

The aim of this research is to assess the impact of social capital on civic engagement. The quantitative method was applied to measure impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The survey instrument was applied to collected data from undergraduate student of four general Universities of Pakistan. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was applied to measure impact of bridging, bonding social capital and trust on civic engagement. Results indicate that bonding social capital and trust have strong association with civic engagement, however, association between bridging social capital and civic engagement was found insignificant. The analyses indicate that it is a basic requirement to bring immediately policy reforms in context of youth development and create more opportunities for youth to engage in the social and structural development of society.

SOCIAL CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON CIVIC ENGAGEMENT:

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON PAKISTANI YOUTH

Rahib Ali Jalalani

Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

Dr Naimatullah Shah

Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to assess the impact of social capital on civic engagement. The quantitative method was applied to measure impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The survey instrument was applied to collected data from undergraduate student of four general Universities of Pakistan. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was applied to measure impact of bridging, bonding social capital and trust on civic engagement. Results indicate that bonding social capital and trust have strong association with civic engagement, however, association between bridging social capital and civic engagement was found insignificant. The analyses indicate that it is a basic requirement to bring immediately policy reforms in context of youth development and create more opportunities for youth to engage in the social and structural development of society.

_______________

Keywords:Youth, Civic Engagement, Bonding Social Capital, Bridging Social Capital, Trust

INTRODUCTION

Deviance is a big issue of developing societies. It is not nurtured by a single social phenomenon but a lot of other social indicators which create space for the deviant behaviour among young population. But some are major variables like class difference, inequality, ignorance from common issues and many more. These indicators develop such environment to provoke social injustice and makes society unbalanced in terms of social values and norms.

Unfortunately, the degree of class difference, inequality, and ignorance is higher in developing societies as compared to developed societies and major victim is young generation. People’s participation in civic activities make very important role to settle down the micro as well as macro issues of society. By civic engagement, different social as well as financial issues of marginalized and less developed segment of population can be solved. The civic engagement is a kind of collective activism and multi-dimensional factor (Camino & Zeldin, 2002). The collective activism can be used to settle down issue of masses. Different issues of society may need to apply different approaches of civic engagement like voluntarism, political participation, donations for needy and so on.

It is common perception that social and economical inequality, class difference, and any other kind of discriminations are political and ideological issues. Unfortunately, in developing world, political and any other ideological powers are governed by particular people like feudal, capitalists and politico-dictators. Such mindsets are major threats for basic rights and social development within society. For defeating such kind of despotism within society, the collective approach is the basic tool. The collective approach develops attitude among masses to work out for social and structural development in society and supports the less developed segment of population. Socially active people are considered assets and active citizens of society. Active citizens use social capital to make more co-ordination among masses and find new path for social development in society.

The social capital facilitates people to make ties in the social structure and creates attitude to work out for social and structural development in the society. According to Granovetter (1973) social ties can be strong or weak. Later, this concept was moderated by Putnam, (1993) into two terms such as bonding social capital and bridging social capital. The bridging social capital can be defined as individual’s social relationship with different walk of life like workmate, classmate and so on. The individual or group of people, who gain any kind of support from any walk of life, is called bridging social capital and bonding social capital referred to individual’s or group social relationship with bonding ties like family members, close contacts as well as friends who support to individual in different way like emotionally, socially, and economically and so on. Such social support can be termed as bonding social capital of individuals (Granovetter, 1973; Putnam, 1993).

Bonding social capital is very important intangible asset of individual which helps individual to gain primary socialization to enhance social relationship within community. Bonding social capital is very important intangible asset of individual which helps individual to gain primary socialization to enhance social relationship within community. Issues of family and community can be solved by using bonding social capital. Bridging social capital is a bit different from bonding social capital. It has capability to gather people from disparate groups to deal with issues of broader social system. Bridging social capital is a better tool to solve broader social issues of society. Micro level issue of community can be solved by using bonding ties and it is common tradition in rural communities.

In bonding ties, trust plays very important role. Due to trust, people share their major as well as minor issues with bonding ties. Secondly, major importance of bonding social capital is that which develops smooth path to make connection with bridging social capital. Bridging social capital is a beneficial tool to link issues of society in broader social order. Mostly wider issues of society can be solved using bridging social capital, because bridging social capital facilitates to connect individual and groups to solve common issues of society.

Unfortunately, there are some demerits of bridging social capital as a compared to bonding social capital. Emotional, social, financial support is rare in bridging social capital while it is common in bonding social capital.

Due to the lack of above mentioned factors in bridging social capital, relation of individual with individual as well as with broader society always remain weak. Weak relationship with broader society develops lack of integration between the individual and society, resulting in mere social cohesion among masses. Lack of social cohesion may nurture attitude of people towards decline of civic engagement, consequences a big step towards dysfunctional society. The basic aim of current study was to measure impacts as well as relationship of both bridging and, bonding social capital and trust with civic engagement to understand attitude of Pakistani youth towards social development of society.

LITERATURE REVIEW

In the current scenario, in order to measure the attitude of masses toward welfare of people still remains a challenge for social scientists.

In this connection, civic engagement is a useful tool which can develop attitude of masses toward development of society by participating different civic related activities. Informally, the civic engagement is a long process of socialization, through civic education can be given generation to generation for strengthening social values and norms within society. Teaching social values and norms is an informal education which creates space an ideal environment for social development within society.

In previous studies, many researchers have worked out to measure the relationship of civic engagement with different constructs (Besser, 2009; Chung & Probert, 2011; Crocetti et.al., 2012). In this context,(Chung & Probert, 2011) in the United State, by examining political activism and civic engagement among American and African youth, and found positive association between two factors.

In the same context, in Italy, a study was conducted by Crocetti et.al., (2012) to examine links between identity “commitment, in-depth, exploration, and reconsideration of commitment” and adolescent civic engagement (past and future volunteer and past and future political). The study revealed positive relationship between the identity, civic efficacy and civic engagement. In general, above studies narrated that the civic engagement related activities need more coordination among masses and coordination depends on intensity of social capital among masses. By applying positivist approach, using longitudinal study, data gathered from residents of Lawa, United States, Besser (2009) identified that relationship between bonding social capital and civic engagement was significance and bridging social capital was negatively associated with civic engagement.

Similarly, in the context of health, Duke, et.al., (2009) conducted a longitudinal study in the United States to examine the causes and health related behaviours in adolescents. The findings of study suggested that family and community connections had significant and positive relationship with civic engagement. In Italy, a study was conducted by Kanacri et.al., (2014) using same approach found out the relationship with civic engagement like pro-social behaviours, filial self-efficacy, relational parent-child support and civic values. Study revealed that adolescent to adulthood youth during the transition period negotiation with parents was good which promoted pro-social behaviour and civic engagement. Furthermore, it also predicted that adolescent’s well filial self-efficacy helps to develop pro-social behaviour which turns in relation to high level of civic engagement and values among the 22 to 23 years old youth. The youth’s interaction and relationship with their parents and co-operation of parent and adults might make ease youth involvement in civic engagement and children’s attachment with parents lead to life satisfaction (Laghi et.al., 2016). Another empirical study was conducted on young generation of Chinese to measure the role of social network service and social capital. Study revealed that bonding and bridging social capital have significance relationship with civic engagement (Zhong, 2014). In addition, study pointed out that pattern of relationship was different in terms of online civic engagement and offline civic engagement with social capital. The online civic engagement through Social Network Service (SNS) was seen positive by joining friends’ civic activities.

Furthermore, the researchers, (Bobek, et.al.,2009) applied deductive approach to explore civic engagement among the youth. In the study, many civic related and other social factors were used to understand basic patterns of civic engagement like civic participation, civic duty, civic skills, peer social connection, neighbourhood social connection and demography. The study also predicted that indicators like civic duty and civic voice are promoted by peer social connections and such social connections enhance attitude of civic engagement. In the case of gender, civic engagement was predicted more in female as compared to male.

A recent, study conducted by (Meer, 2016) by using variables like bridging, bonding social capital, association, ethnicity, trust, attachment, trust, intra- ethnic trust and tolerance to find out agent of socialization mechanism and involvement ethnically mix bonding and bridging associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust. Result of study revealed that there were not elements of socializing agents in diverse and homogenous associations but due to the social capital, there were high amount of trust in the homogenous associations.

Trust plays an important role in making associations among masses, and these associations can be bonding as well as bridging. In previous studies, it was pointed out that trust propensity has positive and significance impact on civic engagement (Beyerlein & Vaisey, 2013; Warren et.al., 2014). However, before understanding the role of trust to make associations among the masses to gain common goal in the society, it is necessary to understand basic dynamics of trust. Trust develops sustainable relationship between individual and association to meet with common goal in society. To understand basic dynamics of trust, researchers conducted an empirical study to know different dynamics of trust including social trust, general social trust, particular trust, political trust and relational trust (Robbins, 2016). The study was conducted through web-based vignette experiment and revealed a positive relationship between general social trust and belief-preference and behavioural-based of trust. This study further pointed out that the people who reported high levels of general social trust also reported high mean-levels of relational trust across both experiments and populations. It also predicted significance association between particular social trust and relational trust. The literature review presented in this section points out that bonding, bridging social capital, trust and civic engagement have strong association. Therefore, model of current study has strong theoretical support and it was basic of demand that must be assessed impact of social capital on civic engagement to understand level of attitude among Pakistani youth toward development of society.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

In the current social environment, youth of developing societies are facing so many problems across the world. Lack of interaction of youth with different strata of society is a significant mark of deprivation. Individual’s participation in social activities creates space for people to work out for development society and gather likeminded people on a particular platform. Engaging in civic related activities in society, produce good environment for common people to enhance their social capital. It is widely accepted that social capital is a big asset of individual which links individual with different groups of society who are already engaged in several social activities within society. Social capital can be used to solve issue of masses as micro as well macro level. Current study examined impact of social capital on civic engagement. Current integrated model was assessed by using PLS-SEM approach. This approach does not require data normality. Majority of previous studies were conducted by using the CB-SEM approach and multivariate analysis. This is also a major contribution of current in terms of research methodology. Other important of current study is that it would help to fulfil the missing links between individuals and social group within society in the context of social interaction. This study would help as a road map for development professionals to develop and implement youth development related projects which enhance youth contribution in social development of society. The outcome of study may help new researchers in terms of empirical, conceptual and methodological point of views in the domain research.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT

In all social science disciplines, the social capital theory was applied to measure social relationship among people. There are different views regarding the social capital theory (Bourdieu et.al., 1993; Coleman, 1988; King, 2000; Putnam, 2000). Granovetter, (1973) defined social capital theory in the term of different ties within society and divided ties into two ways, strong and weak ties. Strong ties can be defined as close relationships between individual and members of society that can be family members, close relatives and contacts that who emotionally support and give reciprocal favours to individual. Therefore, intimacy, social support and similar background are common characteristics in the strong ties while as compared to strong ties such characteristics are rare in weak ties (Haythornthwaite, 2002). According to Putnam, (2000) social capital can be termed as social connections among the individuals and network in the social sphere or in the society that can be on basis of social norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness. Social capital theory was further defined into two concepts, like bonding and bridging social capital (Putman, 1995). Bonding from strong ties and bridging from weak ties. With regards to utilization, the Son & Lin, (2008) divided social capital into two research traditions.

One tradition emphasizes the utility of social capital for individual actors(Burt, 1992, 1997; Granovetter, 1983) and in that views, social capital was pointed out as the resources embedded in individuals’ social ties. In this tradition, social capital was understood as the resources embedded in individuals’ social ties.

In the second tradition, utilization of social capital focuses on collective approach like civic engagement (Putnam, 1993) which can be understood in terms of different variables like citizens’ participation in social and political activities for well being and welfare for the broader social order (Putnam, 2000).

The usage of boding social capital has a little boundary due to limited resources like family, friends and local community support, but bonding social capital is useful resource for local community to gain any micro level goal. As compared to bonding social capital, bridging social capital is more effective and individuals have access to broader social system. Several common issues of society can be solved as well as highlighted by using bridging social capital.

Sustainable relationship with outside of social circle depends on individual’s trust on individual actors as well as groups. Trust develops reciprocity between two individual and a network. Such networks work out for social development of society in the kind of the civic engagement. Several studies have been conducted to assess the direct relationship between social capital and civic engagement. However, a little work has been done to measure bonding, bridging and trust combined with civic engagement therefore this is the first study which has conducted in Pakistani young generation to measure relationship between above mentioned sociological factors.

On the basis of above theoretical background, the following conceptual model and hypotheses were developed to investigate impact of bonding, bridging social capital and trust on civic engagement.

H1:Bridging social capital has positive and significant relationship with civic engagement.

H2:Trust has significant and positive relationship with civic engagement.

H3: Bonding social capital has significant positive relationship with civic engagement.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA ANALYSES STRATEGY

In the domain research, majority of studies were conducted based on deductive approach ( Putnam, 2000; Beaumont et.al., 2006; Levine, 2007; Duke et.al., 2009). Therefore, in current study, deductive approach was applied to investigate impact of independent variables on dependent variables by using structural equation modeling. According to Hair et.al., (2006) in deductive approach, the researcher must care about some assumptions like sample size, response rate, reliability and validity of research instrument and normality of data. For data collection, survey method was selected because it is less expensive as a compared to other techniques (Hair et.al., 2006; Sarstedt et.al., 2017). Data was screened by using SPSS, Version, 24. In the first step, missing data and outliers were removed from dataset. After data cleaning, test of normality was conducted and observed that data is not normal. Therefore, Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) technique was applied to test path relationship. The PLS-SEM is more appropriated technique when small sample size, single indicator or data contains normality related issues. The PLS-SEM do not require normal data, it is a data distribution free approach (Sarstedt et.al., 2017; Hair et.al., 2018). The reliability and validity both are basic assumptions of quantitative approach (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007; Hair et.al., 2014). The reliability was assessed by conducting composite reliability and Chronbach’s Alpha while validity was checked by testing convergent validity and discriminate validity and further details can be seen in analyses section.

SAMPLE AND PROCEDURE FOR DISTRIBUTION

The current study was conducted on young generation of Pakistan. For data collection, random sampling technique was applied to obtain required samples from targeted population. General universities across Pakistan were selected as sample site. Reason behind selecting universities as samples sites, it was easy to reach at youth population and current study’s targeted population also was Pakistani educated youth. Total 800 questionnaires were distributed among the students of four universities along with a letter presenting brief introduction of the study. Out of 800 questionnaires 431 questionnaires were received back with responses. Thus, the response rate was 53% which is enough for statistical analysis. Several steps were taken to make data clean and useful for final analysis. Going to further analyses, missing values, outliers were deducted. At least 13 cases completely were dropped out from the data and 418 cases were applied for final statistical analysis.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

On the basis of required information, survey instrument was developed. The items were adapted from the previous studies (Glanville, 2015; Bobek, 2009; Williams, 2006). The civic engagement items were adapted from precious study (Bobek, 2009) and measured with 08 items. The participants were asked about civic related actions to measure the degree of involvement in different civic related activities in different times like mentoring peers, volunteering, helping neighbours and so on. The items were measured by rating five points scale, “1: Once to 5: never”. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.65. The bonding social capital was measured with 10 items by using five points Likert scales, with a response scale ranging “1: strongly agree to 5: strongly disagree”. These items were adapted from previous study and after little moderating, were used in current study. In the items, different kind statements were given to participants to rate statements. Statements were like support from their family members, friends and close association in kind of socially, emotionally and sort of economically. The bonding social capital items’ Cronbach’s alpha was 0.69, it was above the minimum requirement as suggested by Sarstedt et.al., (2017). The bridging social capital was measured with 10 items, adapted from (Williams, 2006). The five points Likert scale technique was used, rating ranging “1: strongly agree to 5: strongly disagree”. Items of bridging social capital were applied to measure connections between individuals with members of the society like workmate, strangers and so on or connection with broader social system which may provide useful information or new perspectives for one another to meet common goal. The items’ Cronbach’s Alpha was .72. The trust was measured by using 03 items with a response scale ranging from “1: strongly agree to 5: strongly disagree” to assess the people trust each other in societal environment. The items were adapted from the previous study(Glanville, 2016) and were used in another study too (Glanville et.al., 2015) and Cronbach Alpha was 0.77.

DATA ANALYSIS

The Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling was selected to evaluate the integrated model through collected data for the study. Different approaches can be applied to do multivariate analysis but PLS-SEM is a powerful and appropriate technique for analysis of nonparametric data and recently this approach is popular in different disciplines (Hair et.al., 2010; Sarstedt et.al., 2017). The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) is different from the Covariance-Based Approach (CB-SEM) and more convenient and ability to maximize explained variance of the dependent latent constructs. In addition, the researchers prefer to apply PLS-SEM approach instead of CB-SEM, the condition in which the theory is not yet fully developed (Chin, 1998; Sarstedt et.al., 2017; Hair et.al., 2018).

In the current study, Smart PLS.2.0 was applied. The PLS-SEM is more convenient for small sample size, but this study contains enough sample size for multivariate analysis (Sarstedt et.al., 2017). The PLS-SEM has no barrier for normal distribution of data and has capability to measure a complex model (Chin, 1998). The model was assessed by using two approaches, in the first stage, the validity and reliability were assessed by measuring outer model (Henseler et.al., 2014). In second step, the significant impact of dependent variable was assessed by measuring structural model (Hair et.al., 2018; Sarstedt et.al., 2017).

CONSTRUCT RELIABILITY

In the quantitative approach, the construct reliability is very important and it needs to review whether the exacting constructs of variables adequately signify the factors or not. The common definition of construct reliability is that a group of latent indicators of variables are consistent in their measurement. In other words, construct reliability means the level in which a group of constructs stand with or the measurement of the same latent variable. For this purpose, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the construct reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. It was found that 11 items were loaded with less than minimum required value 0.60, 0.70, recommend by researchers ( Hair et.al., 2018; Sarstedt et.al., 2017). Therefore, these items were discarded from the list before evaluating structural model.

The construct reliability can be evaluated by measuring Cronbach’s over all items of variable as well as individuals construct of variable (Hair et.al., 2018). Overall reliability of factors as well as items were calculated by using the SPSS, V.21.0 and alpha value was 0.83 which is more than the minimum required value .60, 0.70 recommend by different researchers (Hair et.al., 2018; Sarstedt et.al., 2017). However, it cannot be ignored that the coefficient alpha has a limitation. It is assumed that whole measured indicators have equal reliability and that is not favourable to apply to infer unidimensionality (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). The construct Composite reliability was applied as alternative to obtain reliability instead of coefficient alpha due to certain limitation. The result revealed that the reliability of overall for variables was above 0.70 recommended by Hair et.al., (2018). Table 1 shows that relationship among all indictors and variable are reliable, the following table shows composite reliability.

TABLE-1

THE TEST OF COMPOSITE RELIABILITY

Constructs Composite Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha
Civic Engagement 0.9676 0.9594
Bonding social capital 0.9367 0.9191
Bridging social capital 0.8964 0.8548
Trust 0.9509 0.9209

THE CONVERGENT AND DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY

The convergent validity is a parameter that performs the capability of model by clarifying the constructs’ variance and mostly is used in sociology, psychology and other behavioural sciences. The convergent validity refers to the level or degree to which two constructs that theoretically must be made links each other, along the discriminant validity, actually discriminant validity is a subtype of construct validity. By value of the AVE, the convergent validity can be verified (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The AVE for the latent variables civic engagement, bonding social capital, bridging social capital, and trust, were 0.913, 0.844, 0.796 and 0.931 respectively and well above level of 0.50 suggested by (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). By observing, result, all factor have high degree of convergent validity.

The discriminant validity points out whether concepts or measurements are supposed to be linked or not (Campbell & Fiske, 1959). The discriminant validity exits when the factors contribute more frequent variance with their individual factor (Fornell & Larcker, 1981) (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The discriminant validity can be assessed by the square root of average extracted (AVE) and according to Fornell-Larcker (1981) criterion average variance extracted must be greater than the latent variable correlations. In the current study, the square-root of AVE for each constructs was above than the inter-constructs correlation in model and meets the minimum criterion of discriminant validity. Following table 2 it shows that square-root of AVE for the civic engagement, bonding social capital, bridging social capital and trust is satisfactory.

TABLE-2

THE TEST OF DISCRIMINANT VALIDIT

Constructs AVE   CE BSC BDSC TRT
CE 0.833 0.913 1.00
BSC 0.712 0.844 0.60 1.00
BDSC 0.634 0.796 0.29 0.25 1.00
TRT 0.867 0.931 0.63 0.57 0.31 1.00

Note:Civic engagement = CE, bonding social capital = BSC, bridging social capital = BDSC, Trust = TRT

MODEL QUALITY

There are several concepts about validation of quality of path model, but following approaches are very common in statistics like, the measurement model, the structural model and structural regression equation (Tenenhaus et.al., 2005) and in the PLS-SEM that can be measured by the communality, [, redundancy.

The results in table 3 reveal that the value of for the civic engagement was 48% in model which revealed that model was fit, minim required values suggested (Chin, 1998). The communality for model was more than 0.50 thresholds recommended by researchers (Hair et.al., 2006). Further results are summarized in following table 3:

TABLE-3

THE TEST OF MODEL QUALITY AND DISCRIMINATION

Constructs R Square Communality Redundancy
Civic Engagement 0.4889 0.8332 0.242
Bonding social capital 0.7117
Bridging social capital 0.6343
Trust 0.8665
Average 0.489 0.761
GoF 0.610    

Note: GoF = Goodness of Fit index

Furthermore, as compared to the Partial Least Square approach, in CB-SEM method, like LISRE, AMOS, have good and more effective global scalar function like Chi-square, in CB-SEM to read model quality. The partial least squares approach does not have particular and effective principle to measure the model fitness index which measures the overall model fitness globally (Schermelleh et.al., 2003; Tenenhaus et al., 2005). To overcome this major statistical problem, the global criterion of Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) index was followed, suggested by Tenenhaus et.al., (2005) and was measured by Geometric mean of the average communality and the average of ( Hair et.al., 2014; Leguina, 2015). The goodness-of-fit (GoF) index for the current study’s model was 0.610. The value of model goodness-of-fit shows independent variables 60% explained variance on dependent variable and can be recognized at good level of the goodness-of fit of current model (Chin, 1998).

HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND MODEL EXPLANATION

The hypotheses of the above proposed model were tested and results are given in the following table 4.

TABLE-4

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

Constructs S. Mean S. Deviation S. Error T Statistics Accepted/

Rejected

BDSC -> CE 0.0784 0.0712 0.0712 1.0311 Rejected
BSC -> CE 0.3508 0.0815 0.0815 4.2352 Accepted
TRT -> CE 0.4049 0.0822 0.0822 5.0155 Accepted

Note:Civic engagement = CE, bonding social capital = BSC, bridging social capital = BDSC, Trust = TRT

The significance of the relationship in inner-model was measured by path estimation. The conceptual model’s paths were measured by regression coefficient by applying PLS-SEM. According the Tabachnick & Fidell, (2007) the β coefficient is measurement of multiple correlations between exogenous and endogenous variables and value in terms of magnitude and significance on the based on t-test.

Regarding significance of t-value researchers expressed that value of t=2.58 p

The result of H1 one reveals that the relationship between bridging social capital with civic engagement is not significance according to statistics of conceptual model path No.1, β=0.0608 and t=1.0311. The study failed to prove hypothesis that bridging social capital has significant and positive relationship with civic engagement. The results pointed that individuals are hardly supported by out of close social contacts to work out for social development of community, groups, as well as whole society as should be. Furthermore, study failed to find out basic specific reasons but lack of cohesion, interaction, rare trust and less encouragement could be part of as factors to make weak relationship between above path factors.

The second path of conceptual model was hypothesized to find out the link between bonding social capital and civic engagement. The statistics of H2 revealed that bonding social capital has positive and significance relationship with civic engagement, β=0.3193 and t=4.2352.

The results also reveal that individuals are supported by their bonding ties like family members, closes friends and contacts in certain social activities in society. In addition, this is a good sign which shows that primary socialization is still strong and social norms and values exiting powerfully in Pakistani society.

The result of H3 reveal that there is positive and significant relationship between endogenous variable civic engagement and exogenous variable trust, β= 0.2227 and t=5.0155. Furthermore, individual’s attitude towards civic activities depends on level of trust among people; hence any kind of decline of trust may impact on low civic activities among masses.

CONCLUSION

The rights based society depends on social actors and degree of social activism within society. For this, individuals must take part in social activities within society. The active participation in civic related activities like volunteerism, political activism, and social activism lead people towards the democratic process in society and engage the people to work out for balanced and rights based society. The active citizens of any society make possible path for masses to work out for welfare and peaceful environment within society. But intensity of attitude as well civic activities depends on social capital among masses. There are certain dimensions of social capital, the current study only focused to measure impact of bridging and bonding social capital, and trust on civic engagement. The data of study were collected from different general universities across Pakistan to measure integrated model among young generation of Pakistan. Due to the multidimensional aspects of exogenous variables as well as endogenous variables, a large amount of literature was reviewed before developing the current study’s model and paths of model were linked on behalf of previous literature.

The result of model path one shows that bridging social capital links with civic engagement is not significant. It means, Pakistani youth do not have good link with broader social order and just have limited awareness about society. Therefore, they are hardly supported by outside the community do to work out and engage in volunteerisms. It is common perceptions that interaction of youth population of Pakistan with broader social order is declining day by day. There are several factors involved in this process. Such kind of social environment may contribute to the decline of social capital among masses that leads to significant youth population towards less civic engagement in society, especially in broader social order.

In the integrated model, second path was measured to know intensity of impact of trust on civic engagement. The results revealed that trust has positive and significant impact on civic engagement. The result pointed that individual’s trust on individual as well as on groups generates social capital and social capital develops space for social development within society. However, positive impact of trust on civic engagement may vary on types of civic engagement.

Third and final, path was measured to know relationship between bonding social capital and civic engagement. This hypothesis apprised that how much bonding ties like family and friends and close contacts have linked with individual and with what levels intensity individuals are supported by bonding ties to work for social development of society. The statistics of last and final path of conceptual model revealed that bonding social capital has positive and significant relationship with civic engagement. In addition, statistics of this path pointed that Pakistani young generation is highly supported and socialized by bonding ties to work out for social development of society. Therefore, in the context of socialization can be assumed, in the Pakistani society, social norms and values are still strong, children are supported by their parents to do workout for welfare and social development of society. In Pakistan, primary socialization is still powerful and assumptions regarding Pakistani society can be easily ignored that it is on the dysfunctional path. Because, factors like, volunteerism, philanthropy and attitude to the social development are still strong in primary social institutions. Therefore, any society can manage any situation of class difference, caste discrimination and any unpredictable situation in future where primary social socialization is strong in society.

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