Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Grassroots
Title Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products
Author(s) Memon, Muhammad, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Rajkumar, Rameez Haider Solangi
Volume 53
Issue 1
Year 2019
Pages 57-73
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Advertisement, Conspicuous Products, Advertisement Linking, Advertisement Attitude, Consumer Buying Behaviour
Chicago 16th Memon, Muhammad, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Rajkumar, Rameez Haider Solangi. "Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products." Grassroots 53, no. 1 (2019).
APA 6th Memon, M., Khowaja, M. A., Rajkumar, Solangi, R. H. (2019). Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products. Grassroots, 53(1).
MHRA Memon, Muhammad, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Rajkumar, Rameez Haider Solangi. 2019. 'Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products', Grassroots, 53.
MLA Memon, Muhammad, Mashooq Ali Khowaja, Rajkumar, Rameez Haider Solangi. "Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products." Grassroots 53.1 (2019). Print.
Harvard MEMON, M., KHOWAJA, M. A., RAJKUMAR, SOLANGI, R. H. 2019. Influence of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior for Conspicuous Products. Grassroots, 53.

Abstract

This research articulates the influence of advertising on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products. Aim of conducting this study was to analyze the impact of advertising liking and advertising attitude on consumer buying behavior, mainly to investigate that either the advertisements are effective to convince the people to spend money on conspicuous products or to influence their buying behavior. Findings of this research will be beneficial to overcome the problem of advertisers focusing more on advertisements contents and effectiveness of advertisements. In order to investigate this, data was collected by showing different advertisements to the responders and it was asked for to fill up the questionnaire. According to our findings, there is a significant and positive influence of advertising on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products. Which means that it contributes much in influencing consumer buying behavior through both national product advertisements and international products advertisements.

INTRODUCTION

People buy conspicuous goods for the status purpose which influences their attitude, personality, social status and many other factors, but what makes people to be influenced by any good? As conspicuous goods are consumed for image purpose. There are many factors which influence consumers buying behavior from which “Advertising” is a very crucial factor which has a very vital influence on the consumers buying behavior. Advertising builds and enables a product’s or brand’s image in the eyes of consumers and then they're ready to compensate for that product brand. In today’s world people buy those products which they see and become aware of that. Advertisement itself does not impact on consumers’ buying behavior. Advertisement has its elements that influence the consumer’s buying behavior. From these elements in this research two main factors are going to be investigated are advertisement liking and advertisement attitude. As advertising is a source of communication which influences peoples’ mood, behavior, and their buying decision for any product or service so this is a very strong and influential tool to persuade and convince people to buy any product. Advertising is only a unique method by which consumers become aware of products and services and then they become influenced by it (depends upon how an advertisement is unique, motivational, and influential). The category of products which is mostly used for showing social status is luxury or conspicuous products for instance Perfumes, Cell phones, Apparels, Wrist watches, Shoes etc. People are very careful and sensitive when it comes to status products because the products which they use or buy either for themselves or for giving to others as a gift, so at that time an advertisement for any conspicuous good is a very helpful tool to convince and attract that consumer to purchase that product. So we consider advertising as an essential necessity for establishing a product’s image. Without advertising, goods would be interchangeable and could not gain the distinct meaning. This research is all about how an advertisement can influence the consumers’ buying behavior for conspicuous products.

RESEARCH PROBLEM

People purchase conspicuous goods for image reasons and the advertising creates that brand’s image. Also conspicuous goods are purchased not only to satisfy material needs but also social needs. So for this reason advertisement is a very vital need for these products because it has a very significant impact on consumer’s buying behavior.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

This research aims to study the influence of advertising on consumer buying behavior for the conspicuous products.

SCOPE FOR THE RESEARCH

The scope of this research is to find out whether advertising has any influence on consumer buying behavior for the conspicuous products.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Kazemi and Esmaeili (2010) investigated that there is an affirmative relationship between advertising and expenditure. They studied that TV advertising is mainly chosen by majority as the mass medium practiced in research.

Ayanwale, Alimi and Ayanbimipe (2005) explained that television ad comprised primarily desirable by absolute majority from the responders from each the métiers utilized in their research. It showed that advertising serves as a leading tool around in making brand consciousness and specify the psyche of a latent consumer to acquire ultimate purchasing option. Because of gamy orientation to publicizing makes up consequently played up for companies that desire to not alone hold on to their marketplace but acquire inferential schemes to gain their market portion. With orientation to the advert mass medium, the report disclosed that telecasting comprises presently the most cogent of complete métiers practiced in publicizing an intersection. Further disclosed that in examination of these additional thoughtfulness must to lean to telecasting because a métier of publicizing. They concluded that the rationale for these might be is that TV coalesces action, sound, and special visual effects. The product could be verified and expressed upon telecasting.

Ashaduzzaman and Asif-ur-Rahman (2011) investigated that TV advertising has a great influence on women in case of food preferences and consumption behavior. The products which were advertised have an edge over the products which are not advertised in terms of consumption. The advertisement was put-upon to set up a primary consciousness of the merchandise upstairs of the likely consumer and to gain noesis on them. The assumed common function of the promoting is to allow the consumers with the correct measure of awareness around the product, which is associated to the aim of the rivalry and to extradite the consumer atonement. The advertisement played a very important task in presenting a fresh product to the consumer and also supports in building better choice during the shopping The consumers preferred to acquire branded and standardized products which were more advertised on television. Also they explained that the show time and quality of the advertisement influence directly the consumer behavior.

Bamoriya and Singh (2011) examined that in present era advertising faces criticism due to the erosion of trustworthiness, exploitation of facts, and promotion of money-oriented values. They stated that criticism of this kind may be a sign consumer concentration getting switched which might consequently result in possible loss of productive markets. Further they suggest that probability of careful dispensation of advertisements is lower due to the higher number of advertisements. Too little time and intellectual resources made it tricky for the audience to contribute enough attention to most advertisements. The advertising message’s Information and trustworthiness had the most influence on the attitude of consumers towards advertising, and marketers must strive hard on these features so that a positive ad attitude can be reflected. The fundamental use of the advertising constituted to make available the consumers with the proper information concerning the products or services. The implementation of the publicizing indoor system was interestingly mounting and several enquiries believed it equally an authoritative element that could mold the purchasing conduct of the consumers.

Zain-ul-Abideen and Saleem (2011) found that there is a common relationship between the absolute variables which are environmental reception and emotive reaction, but deep investigation explained that emotional response of consumer purchase behavior had a significant relationship with the consumer purchasing conduct. Further they explained that people buy the brands to which they're most emotionally bound. So this study concluded that emotional response had a great impact on consumers buying behavior as compared to environmental response.

Pongiannan (2011) compared the effectiveness of advertising of both television and World Wide Web when it comes to the respondents’ perception and their buying behavior. Advertising was a very dynamic way to convince people to buy something and make them aware of latest products or services. The selection of the right media was a prerequisite among a number of media for advertisements because success of an advertisement relies on updating the public about the right product at the right time via accurate medium. Television was broadly accepted than other media because of its creativeness and affect, reportage and cost affectivity, enslavement and tending, selectivity and flexibleness.

Shoaib, et.al., (2012) found a proper connection between celebrity and product as it created a good impact, built a brand identity and encouraged more and more people towards the product. Bollywood stars kept on the identity of product revitalize in the minds of consumers promote them towards the brand, while people hold on to the product that was endorsed by Bollywood stars for extended time and they easily remember at the time of shopping as compared to Lollywood stars.

Bashir and Malik (2010) revealed that there are three fundamental features in an advertisement which can influence the audience, i.e. personality, caption, and appeal. Advertisement was considered as a reliable source of information by the consumers as compared to others’ opinions. Any income group could be affected by the advertisement, but expensive manufactured goods and recurrence of advertisement cannot affect the buying attitude.

All-Share and Salaimeh (2010) concluded that TV advertisements can change the consumers’ attitude. So they concluded that the TV advertising is more vital media for both producer and consumer because it facilitated their operations of selling and buying the product.

Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002) investigated in their research that consumers like television and magazine advertisements more than the advertisements which they see on internet. They further concluded that television media is more powerful than any other form of media in order to catch the attention of the customers and affect their attitude and behavior.

Shrum, McCarty and Lowrey (1995) investigated those persons who are more careful when they are buying any product least relying on advertisement. Women were more careful when they were buying any product which builds their mind that not to believe on advertisements, that means there is an inverse relationship between their tendency of careful buying and the advertising.

Dodson and Muller (1978) pointed out that advertising has a great impact on consumers’ attitude. With the boost in the level of advertising there was an increase in the attitude which has a direct proportional effect on boost in sales.

Hoch and Ha (1986) investigated that consumers in real do not need any such evidences or proofs of authenticity of the claims of the advertisers, they just believe on the advertisers’ claims without any careful consideration. Their research findings also suggested that these consumers believe more on print media than television advertising.

Millar and Choi (2003) investigated that there is a very wide role of knowledge intermediary (advertising) in influencing consumer preference and awareness. Advertising increased the strength of the brand as well as it differentiated it from other brands, also builds the reputation of the organization in the eyes of consumers and enabling them to understand and measure the significance of it.

Zufryden (1987) proposed a model which gives a possibly practical media planning instrument that can assist advertising managers estimate media tactics and pick appropriate media agenda. Further, he concluded with an evaluation of the possible potencies and restrictions of the proposed model as an instrument for advertising media investigation and forecasting in practice.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & ECONOMETRICAL MODELS

The data for the study was accumulated through integrated questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty (280) replicates of questionnaire were filled by the respondents. The non-probability sampling technique was used to investigate the formulated research hypotheses. Simple Linear Regression is used to investigate the formulated research hypotheses. The technique was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H1:There is a positive influence of advertisement liking on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

H2: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

H3: There is a positive influence advertisement of national products liking on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

H4: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude of national products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

H5: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking on international products consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

H6: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude of international products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

SAMPLE SIZE

The data for the study was accumulated through way of integrated questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty (280) replicates of questionnaire were filled by the respondents.

RESULTS

The application of SLR analysis through SPPS software is employed because this type of analysis is highly recommended for the following results appeared:

H1: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-1

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .599a .359 .357 .35864
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking

The R Square value is 0.359 or 35.9% which is very low exhibiting a weak association between the model and the dependant variable that is buying behavior or we can state that the model’s capability regarding the prediction of dependent variable is very low.

| TABLE-2

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 20.024 1 20.024 155.679 .000a
Residual 35.757 278 .129
Total 55.781 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior

The F-statistic value are 155.679 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement liking has positive impact on consumer buying behavior that means H1 is accepted. The “Sig” value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-3

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .726 .150 4.840 .000
Advertisement Liking .686 .055 .599 12.477 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior

The value of B is 0.686 and is positive. “Sig” value of beta is 0.000 which is

H2: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-4

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .671a .450 .448 .33208
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude

The R Square value is 0.450 or 45% which is low demonstrating a very weak association between the model and the dependent variable that is buying behavior or we can state that the model’s capability regarding the prediction of dependent variable is low.

| TABLE-5

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 25.124 1 25.124 227.827 .000a
Residual 30.657 278 .110
Total 55.781 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior

The F-statistic value are 227.827 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement attitude has positive influence on consumer buying behavior that means H2 is accepted. The “Sig” value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-6

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .678 .127 5.318 .000
Advertisement Attitude .799 .053 .671 15.094 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior

The value of B is 0.799 and is positive. “Sig” value of beta is 0.000 which is

H3: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking of national products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-7

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .542a .294 .292 .48357
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking (National Products)

The R Square value is 0.294 or 29.4% which is very low and it shows a very weak relationship between the model and the dependant variable that is buying behavior or we can state that the ability of the model to predict the dependant variable is very low.

| TABLE-8

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 27.085 1 27.085 115.824 .000a
Residual 65.009 278 .234
Total 92.094 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking (National Products)
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (National Products)

The F-statistic value are 115.824 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement liking of national products has positive influence on consumer buying behavior that means H3 is accepted. The “Sig” value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-9

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .941 .173 5.444 .000
Advertisement Liking (National Products) .631 .059 .542 10.762 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (National Products)

The value of B is 0.631 and is positive. “Sig” value of beta is 0.000 which is

H4: There is a positive influence advertisement attitude of national products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-10

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .683a .466 .464 .42057
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude (National Products)

The R Square value is 0.466 or 46.6% which is low which reflects a weak association between the model and the dependent variable which is buying behavior or we can state that the model’s capability regarding prediction of dependent variable is low.

| TABLE-11

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 42.922 1 42.922 242.664 .000a
Residual 49.172 278 .177
Total 92.094 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude (National Products)
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (National Products)

The F-statistic value are 242.664 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement attitude of national products has positive influence on consumer buying behavior that means H4 is accepted. The ‘Sig’ value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-12

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .599 .142 4.219 .000
Advertisement Attitude (National Products) .862 .055 .683 15.578 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (National Products)

The value of B is 0.862 and is positive. “Sig” value of beta is 0.000 which is

H5: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking of international products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-13

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .609a .371 .369 .40959
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking (International Products)

The R Square value is 0.371 or 37.1% which is very low exhibiting a very weak association of the model with dependent variable which is buying behavior or we can state that the model’s capability regarding prediction of dependent variable is very low.

| Table-14

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 27.495 1 27.495 163.892 .000a
Residual 46.639 278 .168
Total 74.134 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Liking (International Products)
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (International Products)

The F-statistic value are 163.892 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement liking of international products has a positive influence on consumer buying behavior that means H5 is accepted. The “Sig” value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-15

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .720 .132 5.457 .000
Advertisement Liking (International Products) .667 .052 .609 12.802 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (International Products)

The value of B is 0.667 and is positive. “Sig” value of beta is 0.000 which is

H6: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude of international products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

| TABLE-16

MODEL SUMMARY

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .660a .436 .434 .38786
a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude (International Products)

The R Square value is 0.436 or 43.6% which is low demonstrating a weak association of model with the dependent variable which is buying behavior or we can state that the model’s capability regarding the prediction of dependent variable is low.

| TABLE-17

ANOVAb

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 32.313 1 32.313 214.801 .000a
Residual 41.821 278 .150
Total 74.134 279
| a. Predictors: (Constant), Advertisement Attitude (International Products)
b. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (International Products)

The F-statistic value are 214.801 which are > 3.84 that means advertisement attitude of international products has a positive influence on consumer buying behavior that means H6 is accepted. The “Sig” value of F-statistic 0.000 which is

| TABLE-18

COEFFICIENTSa

style="background-color:#ffffff;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:2pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding:0.0208in;" | Model align=center style="background-color:#e6e6e6;border-top:2pt solid #000000;border-bottom:1pt solid #000000;border-left:2pt solid #000000;border-right:none;padding-top:0in;padding-bottom:0in;padding-left:0.0208in;padding-right:0.0208in;" | Un-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .671 .119 5.641 .000
Advertisement Attitude (International Products) .767 .052 .660 14.656 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Buying Behavior (International Products)

The value of B is 0.767 and is positive. ‘Sig’ value of beta is 0.000 which is

TABLE-19

Hypotheses R-Square F-Value Beta Sig Value

α<0.05

Empirical Conclusion
H1: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.359

155.679

0.686

0.000

Accepted

H2: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.450

227.827

0.799

0.000

Accepted

H3: There is a positive influence of national products advertisement liking on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.294

115.824

0.631

0.000

Accepted

H4: There is a positive influence of national products advertisement attitude on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.466

242.664

0.862

0.000

Accepted

H5: There is a positive influence of advertisement liking of international products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.371

163.892

0.667

0.000

Accepted

H6: There is a positive influence of advertisement attitude of international products on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

0.436

214.801

0.767

0.000

Accepted

CONCLUSION

There is significant and positive impact of advertisement liking and advertisement attitude on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products which means that it contributes much in influencing consumer buying behavior through both national product advertisements and international products advertisements. In general advertisement liking and advertisement attitude have a significant and positive impact on consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products so advertisers must be aware of the fact that advertisement liking and advertisement attitude play a major role in manipulating the consumer buying behavior for conspicuous products.

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