Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Grassroots
Title Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District
Author(s) Noor-Ul-Hiba, Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto
Volume 53
Issue 2
Year 2019
Pages 148-159
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Divorce, Forced Marriages, Uneducated Spouse, Chi-Square Test.
Chicago 16th Noor-Ul-Hiba, Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto. "Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District." Grassroots 53, no. 2 (2019).
APA 6th Noor-Ul-Hiba, Talpur, M. G. H., Daudpoto, M. R. (2019). Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District. Grassroots, 53(2).
MHRA Noor-Ul-Hiba, Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto. 2019. 'Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District', Grassroots, 53.
MLA Noor-Ul-Hiba, Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto. "Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District." Grassroots 53.2 (2019). Print.
Harvard NOOR-UL-HIBA, TALPUR, M. G. H., DAUDPOTO, M. R. 2019. Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District. Grassroots, 53.
Contents
Awareness and Accessibility of Right to Information Act: A Comparative Study of Minorities within Pakistan and India
A Quantitative Analysis of Agro-Based Industry in Matiari District, Sindh, Pakistan: A Sociological Perspective
A Comparative Study of Employees’ Perception Relating to Performance Appraisal Practices in the Public and Private Banking Sector of Sindh
A New Historicist Analysis of Bina Shah’s Novel a Season for Martyrs
Attitude Towards Science: A Case Study of Higher Secondary Level Students of Sindh Province
Historical, Cultural and Geographical Ties Between Pakistan and Iran
Performance of Banking Industry After Privatization in Pakistan: A Case Study of Mcb Bank Limited
Cultural Linkages Between the People of Sindh and Japan
World View: A Philosophical and Theological Perspective
A Comparative Research Between Conventional and Islamic Bank System of Pakistan: Liquidity Risk Management
Why Criminologists Study Journalism?
Empirical Study and Analysis of Forced Marriages and Uneducated Spouse in Sindh Province: A Case Study of Hyderabad District
The Enigma of Stable Employment: Does Job Security Really Make Difference in Employee Performance?
Negotiating the Pre-9/11 Muslim Identity in Reluctant Fundamentlist and Home Boy
University Employed Women’s Perspective on Societal Attitudes Towards Their Employment
Coverage of Women Issues in the Pakistan’s Press: A Critical Analysis
Impact of Traditional Values on the Equality of Females Living in Balochistan, Pakistan
Enlightened Message of Sufism Towards Peaceful Pakistan
The Reluctant Fundamentalist Exploring the Ideological Basis and Bicultural Consciousness in Pakistani Diasporic Anglophone Fiction
Water Sharing Conflicts and Management in the Indus River Basin

Abstract

The aim of this study is to recognize that how many divorced men and women are agreed that forced marriages and uneducated spouse are the causes of divorce in Hyderabad district. This study is based on primary data, and the data are collected through questionnaires from 400 respondents (200 divorced men and 200 divorced women) by using stratified sampling. Results indicate that both men and women are highly agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages and uneducated spouse in Hyderabad district. The hypotheses of this study have been accepted and there is no association between the variables of chi-square test.

INTRODUCTION

Divorce is a crucial problem of the world. Divorce is the dissolution of a marriage, whether it is given by men or taken by women. The divorce rate is increasing day by day. People think that divorce is an easiest solution to a complicated marriage life and the worst thing is that our society has adopted and proposed the divorce as a way to stay away from marriage troubles. Specially, there can be many types of troubles that the man and woman must have to face in their life after divorce in a Muslim country. Divorce is the cause of decreasing the importance of marriage.

Divorce is a lawful separation of two people bond in a marriage relationship. The problem is more complicated if the married couple has a child, because when a child is involved the issue is compounded many faults. Alternatively, when two people are married and they do not have children, they could get away with a clean divorce or a decent divorce because there are not many psychological ramifications. And where the children are involved, then there are ramifications, implications and the negative consequences. Nowadays the divorce is primarily a secular kind of institution. Divorce is lawful, but it is the most detested act and the reason is that it is not just a social issue but a very personal and psychological one. A number of studies have been carried out not just for the children involved in a divorce case, but also for the couple involved in it too. Even 10 years afterwards, specially when the couple wants to make another major decision, the ramifications of that divorce effect the next marriage as well. Besides, number of studies has shown how children of divorced parents are likely to have a greater possibility to do the same things that their parents did. It is a bad precedent and when the children grow up in these circumstances, it affects on their thoughts and personality.

FORCED MARRIAGE

Forced marriages are those in which either of the life partners do not agree to the marriage and they are physically and mentally tortured by the family and forced to marry (Multi-Agency, 2009).

There is a significant difference between arranged and forced marriages. Because in arranged marriage, there is a huge involvement of the parents of husband and wife, and the decision of the future spouses is kept with their parents. Wrong marriage should be included in the meaning of forced marriage, where the individual agrees to marry by just listening to false information and believe in the false information about future life partner. Such decision of the individual is not according to their own wishes, rather based on the false information (Khanum, 2008).

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the decision of the intending spouses is based on their own wish (www.un.org/en/documents/udhr). Similarly, the policy of cross-government about the demand of ending the violence on women describes the violence based on gender from which the women suffers physical and mental torture (www.gov.uk/government/publications/ call-to-end-violence-against-women-and-girls-action-plan), and domestic abuse can also be relating to the forced marriages. It is verified that in United Kingdom, every year nearly twelve murders are recorded where the cause of murder is forced marriage (House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, 2008).

WORLDWIDE MATTERS OF FORCED MARRIAGE

Karma Nirvana describes that every year many individuals given protection in foreign countries who are not safe from their forced marriage (BBC News, May 13, 2011). The students from eastern societies are often pressurized to marry before they go to foreign countries for higher studies. According to the principles of immigration in the year of 2008 for the seekers of marital visas, the age of future husband and wife must be above twenty-one years (House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, 2011).

UNEDUCATED SPOUSE

The divorce rate is growing which is associated with the level of education among married men and women (Andersen, 2009).

The main reason of divorce is difference in education between husband and wife. The chances of divorce decrease in the USA where the education of wife is graduation (Raley, R.K. & Bumpass, 2003:245-60). Educated people who have better knowledge about socioeconomic factors stay away from the divorce (Harkonen, J. & Jaap, Dronkers, 2006:501-17).

It is necessary to recognize the level of the education of future husband and wife (Maenpaa, E. & Marika Jalovaara, 2014:1769-92; Jalovaara, M., 2003:67-81; Lewin, A.C., 2006:65-85). Level of education among men and women is growing up equally so the educational level of the spouses is high (Maenpaa, E. & Marika Jalovaara, 2014:1769-92). Further studies mentioned that the high level of education with the marriage partner’s men and women decreases the chances of divorce (Christine, R., 2010:735-53; Goldstein, J.R. & Kristen Harknett, 2006:121-43).

The feasible root of growing separation is decreasing conjugal homogamy, while the highly educated people want to marry each other because of high income and stay away from divorce (Esping Andersen, G., 2009). Homogamy of education may be helpful to the professional success by good knowledge and public networking (Dribe, M. & Paul Nystedt, 2013:1197-1216).

Based on the level of education of the spouses, when the husband and wife are equally educated from university then the rate of divorce is very low, while divorce rate is increased in other spouses. Those life partners in which the education of men is low and education of women is none then the rate of divorce is very high. The marriages of those husband and wife who are equally low educated are ended soon. Those marriages are also terminated in which the level of education of the husband is less than the level of education of his wife. The rate of divorce is increased because the income of wife is higher than the income of her husband (Kaplan, A. & Anat Herbst, 2015:949-82).

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to verify that forced marriages and uneducated spouse are the causes of divorce in Hyderabad district.

HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

H1: Divorce occurs due to forced marriages.

H2: Divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This study is based on primary data, and the data are collected through questionnaires from 400 respondents consisting of 200 divorced men and 200 divorced women of Hyderabad district. For the selection of sample size from unknown population, the formula of sample size has been used. The stratified sampling method has been used for sampling. The collected data of this study have been analyzed in the SPSS (Version 21). Analyzed data are shown through pie charts and tables. Descriptive statistics has been used to recognize the characteristics of the data. The chi-square test has been applied to find out the association between two variables of the chi-square test, the level of significance at 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

TABLE-1

FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES OF THE RESPONSES OF DIVORCED MEN AND WOMEN

Cause of Divorce Responses Men Women Total
Freq. % Freq. % Freq. %
Divorce occurs due to forced marriages. Agree 183 45.75% 185 46.25% 368 92%
Disagree 17 4.25% 15 3.75% 32 8%
Not Sure 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total - - - - 400 100%
Divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse. Agree 182 45.5% 186 46.5% 368 92%
Disagree 18 4.5% 14 3.5% 32 8%
Not Sure 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total - - - - 400 100%

Source:Survey data collected in 2017 from the divorced men and women of Hyderabad District.

Table 1 shows the frequencies and percentages of the responses of divorced men and women about causes of divorce which are forced marriages and uneducated spouse. 45.75% divorced men are agreed, 46.25% divorced women are agreed, and total 92% respondents are agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 4.25% divorced men are disagreed, 3.75% divorced women are disagreed, and total 8% respondents are disagreed. 45.5% divorced men are agreed, 46.5% divorced women are agreed, and total 92% respondents are agreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse while 4.5% divorced men are disagreed, 3.5% divorced women are disagreed, and total 8% respondents are disagreed.

Pie charts showing the percentages of the responses of divorced men and women.


FIGURE-1: DIVORCE OCCURS DUE TO FORCED MARRIAGES.

Figure-1 showing that mostly divorced men and women have agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages.


FIGURE-2: DIVORCE OCCURS DUE TO UNEDUCATED SPOUSE.

Figure 2 showing that mostly divorced men and women have agreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

TABLE-2

MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE RESPONSES OF DIVORCED MEN AND WOMEN

Causes of Divorce Men Women
Mean SD Mean SD
Divorce occurs due to forced marriages. 1.09 0.280 1.08 0.264
Divorce arises owing to uneducated spouse. 1.09 0.287 1.07 0.256

Source: The values of Mean and Standard Deviation are analyzed in SPSS.

Table-2 showing the mean and standard deviation of the responses of divorced men and women about causes of divorce which forced marriages and uneducated spouse. The mean values are showing that the mostly divorced men and women are satisfied with the choice number one of Likert scale which is “agree”. The values of standard deviation are showing the variation among the data of the study.

Line chart showing the Mean and Standard Deviation of the responses of divorced men and women:


FIGURE-3: MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION

Figure-3 showing the mean and standard deviation of the responses of divorced men and women about causes of divorce which are forced marriages and uneducated spouse. The mean values are showing that mostly divorced men and women have agreed that forced marriages and uneducated spouse are the causes of divorce. The values of the standard deviation are showing the variation among the data of the study.

HYPOTHESIS

  1. 1
TABLE-3.1: CROSS TABULATION

Gender* Divorce occurs due to forced marriages.

H1: Divorce occurs due to forced marriages. Total
Agree Disagree
Gender Men Observed Value

Expected Value

183

184.0

17

16.0

200

200.0

Women Observed Value

Expected Value

185

184.0

15

16.0

200

200.0

Total Observed Value

Expected Value

368

368.0

32

32.0

400

400.0

Table-3.1 showing the cross tabulation which is evaluated by SPSS.

TABLE-3.2: CHI-SQUARE TEST
Calculated Value of Chi-Square

(Critical value = 3.84)

Df p-value

(Level of significance=.05)

Pearson Chi-Square .136 1 .712

Table-3.2 showing that the calculated value of chi-square did not fall in critical region (.136 .05). It indicates that the hypothesis has been accepted and there is no association between the variables (gender and divorce occurs due to forced marriages) of chi-square test.

HYPOTHESIS

  1. 2
TABLE-4.1: CROSS TABULATION

Gender* Divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

  H2: Divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse. Total
Agree Disagree
Gender Men Observed Value

Expected Value

182

184.0

18

16.0

200

200.0

Women Observed Value

Expected Value

186

184.0

14

16.0

200

200.0

Total Observed Value

Expected Value

368

368.0

32

32.0

400

400.0

Table-4.1 showing the cross tabulation which is evaluated by SPSS.

TABLE-4.2: CHI-SQUARE TEST
Calculated Value of Chi-Square

(Critical value = 3.84)

Df p-value

(Level of significance = .05)

Pearson Chi-Square .543 1 .461

Table-4.2 showing that the calculated value of chi-square did not fall in critical region (.543 .05). It indicates that the hypothesis has been accepted and there is no association between the variables (gender and divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse) of chi-square test.

TABLE-5

COMPARISON BETWEEN CAUSES OF DIVORCE (DIVORCE OCCURS DUE TO FORCED MARRIAGES AND DIVORCE OCCURS DUE TO UNEDUCATED SPOUSE)

Divorce occurs due to forced marriages Divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse
Agree 368 368
Disagree 32 32
Total 400 400

Source:Survey data collected in 2017 from the divorced men and women of Hyderabad District.

Table-5 showing the comparison between causes of divorce (divorce occurs due to forced marriages and divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse) by the frequencies of their responses. From 400 respondents, 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have also agreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse and 32 respondents have disagreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 32 respondents (divorced men and women) have also disagreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

COLUMN CHART SHOWING THE COMPARISON

BETWEEN CAUSES OF DIVORCE


FIGURE-4: COMPARISON BETWEEN CAUSES OF DIVORCE

Figure-4 showing the comparison between causes of divorce (divorce occurs due to forced marriages and divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse) by the frequencies of their responses. From 400 respondents, 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have also agreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse and 32 respondents have disagreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 32 respondents (divorced men and women) have also disagreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

CONCLUSION

This study is focused onto verification that forced marriages and uneducated spouse are the causes of divorce in Hyderabad district. From the results, it is concluded that 45.75% divorced men and 46.25% divorced women have agreed that the divorce occurs due to forced marriages. 45.5% divorced men and 46.5% divorced women have agreed that the divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse.

Comparison between causes of divorce (divorce occurs due to forced marriages and divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse) are shown by the frequencies of their responses. From 400 respondents, 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have agreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 368 respondents (divorced men and women) have also agreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse and 32 respondents have disagreed that divorce occurs due to forced marriages while 32 respondents (divorced men and women) have also disagreed that divorce occurs due to uneducated spouse. It indicates that both men and women have highly agreed that the divorce occurs due to forced marriages and uneducated spouse. The hypotheses have been accepted and there is no association between the variables of chi-square test. The hypotheses have been accepted and there is no association between the variables of chi-square test.

According to this study, it is necessary for both genders to know about the education of their future life partner and parents should not force their children to marry without their consent because it is the right of both genders to select their life partner.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Allah made the nature where a couple gets together. They could be two completely different people in the sense of not related and never having met before. They could be come together with different cultures, different countries, different backgrounds and different languages. They come together in the name of Allah and Allah brings the blessings on them after the marriage. People have a very special relationship from that continuous if it lasts this world a continuation into the hereafter. The most amazing thing is that who is a person going to be with in paradise? A person is going to be with a spouse, so wife is going to be with the husband and the husband is going to be with the wife. Nobody is going to be in paradise with their mother, father, son or daughter or any other relative but with their spouse. So, pick the right spouse in this world.

This topic is not about just to mention the harms of a divorce, it has also provided some guidance which is based on this study by speaking to various people who are divorced and people who are making mistakes. Mostly those who are not married their thinking is that marriage is a problem of life, so they do not want to do marriage. Unmarried people have to understand it as a lesson, internalized it and try to be carried with them, so that unmarried people will feel protected even from before they marry. A person is considered to be rectified inside within himself as long as they have good character, the faculties inside if they are in moderation if they are perfectly tuned then they will execute a good character. If the person does not get angry too much, the person does not have too much lascivious to go and do forbidden things but does not have to less desire that does not even fulfill the rights of his/her spouse. When these faculties are in moderation, then they will manifest a good character in the person and in the attitude of the person. Some of us never suede in a normal conversation. In every sentence we need to have a suede word otherwise the talk can go in another direction. When that person who does not normally suede they have try to suede then they will feel that suede gives a power and people will consider being a decent person. Why we need to control our anger? We need to think about it today because this is very similar to how people divorced. When women want to divorce, it is a request and demand for divorce to her husband. But it is up to the man to oblige or refuse and when the man does it, it is done. The first thing is, if a couple gets together a man and a woman with witnesses, they say that I would like to marry you or I marry you then it is a Nikah or a marriage contract. Second one is divorced, if a person says as a joke to his wife that I divorce you then it is done. As well as if a man says in anger that I divorce you, it is done. It is a very serious issue and not to play these words. The psychology of swerving even the people who look decent, it is the underlying fact, when people get angry it is suddenly coming up to them that they cannot control themselves. Each culture has its own good things and bad things. In some cultures, people do not talk about divorce every day. In various cultures, the husband says to his wife in a joke that if you do not do what I am saying to you then I will give you divorce, and wife is also doing the same thing in a joke. These kinds of people do not realize that what they are doing. One thing is, if one spouse wants to be together with their spouse and other is constantly demanding for divorce. The second thing is, some husband and wife are threatened to his or her spouse for divorce, and such kind of behavior is a cause of destroying any good feeling. Divorce is not a magic word, it is a dangerous word, it should not be said as a threat or anything thing. It does not mean that the divorce cannot happen and should never happen, we have been given away for divorce. We have to understand that what problems their spouse faces as well as what are their aims and thoughts.

REFERENCES

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Christine R. Schwartz, (2010). Pathways to Educational Homogamy in Marital and Cohabiting Unions, Demography, Vol.47, No.3:735-753.

Dribe, M. and Paul Nystedt (2013). Educational homogamy and gender-specific earnings: Sweden, 1990-2009, Demography, Vol.50, No.4:1197-1216.

Esping Andersen, G. (2009). The incomplete revolution: Adapting to women’s new roles, UK: Cambridge: Polity Press.

Goldstein, J.R. & Harknett, Kristen (2006). Parenting across racial and class lines: Assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, dating or no longer romantically involved, Social Forces, Vol.85, No.1:121-143.

Härkönen, J. & Dronkers, Jaap, (2006). Stability and change in the educational gradient of divorce: A comparison of seventeen countries, European Sociological Review, Vol.22, No.5:501-517.

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House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, (2008). Domestic Violence, Forced Marriage and ‘Honour’-Based Violence, The Stationery Office Limited, London, Session 2007-2008.

House of Commons Home Affairs-Committee, (2011). Forced Marriage, The Stationery Office Limited, London.

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Lewin, A. C. (2006). Divorce in Israel: A Socio-demographic Approach, Israeli Sociology, Vol.8, No.1:65-85.

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Multi Agency, (2009). Multi-Agency Practice Guidelines: Handling Cases of Forced Marriage, United Kingdom: Home Office, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Nazia Khanum, (2008). ‘Force marriage, family cohesion and community engagement: National learning through a case study of Luton’, Equality in Diversity, Luton.

Raley, R. K. & Larry Bumpass. (2003). The topography of the divorce plateau: Levels and trends in union stability in the United States after 1980, Demographic Research, Vol.8, No.8:245-260.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ‘United Nations’, [Online]. Available: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr