Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies
Title Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University
Author(s) Cubillas, Cristina
Volume 1
Issue 1
Year 2014
Pages 68-77
DOI 10.21016/ICEPSS.2014.14023
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Dean’s listers, academic achievement, learning style
Chicago 16th Cubillas, Cristina. "Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1, no. 1 (2014).
APA 6th Cubillas, C. (2014). Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1(1).
MHRA Cubillas, Cristina. 2014. 'Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University', Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.
MLA Cubillas, Cristina. "Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1.1 (2014). Print.
Harvard CUBILLAS, C. 2014. Factors Affecting the Academic Achievements among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.

Abstract

The study assessed the relationship between the factors affecting the academic achievement of the dean’s listers’ of Caraga State University. It involves the total population of the dean’s listers in the said university. The independent variables are those pre-determined factors’ affecting the academic achievement of the dean’s listers’ of Caraga State University and the dependent variable is the grades of the dean’s listers’. The result shows the low relationship between the pre-determined factors and the academic achievement evidenced by the values of the p-values which are greater than . In terms of the academic achievement of the dean’s listers’ their grades signifies their excellence in their different chosen fields. With regards to the pre-determined factors, the factor that got the highest mean is the teachers’ competence with 3.7639 and the lowest one is the learning environment with 3.6690. The study habits’ got the second spot among the 4 factors followed by the learning styles. Based on Spearmen Correlation analysis in the data gathered, the results revealed that there is no significant relationship between the pre-determined factors and the academic achievement of the dean’s listers’ of Caraga State University. The p-values obtained are less than 0.05 for all the data set; that is accepting the null hypothesis. The results clearly depicts that the students’ study habit, learning style teachers’ competence and the learning environment has no influence to the achievement reached by the dean’s listers’. On the other hand, it is still very important to make and to maintain these factors visible in the academic arena for a better learning and for a better outcome. The absence of these factors might affect the performances of the students’ in Caraga State University.

Introduction

Academic Achievement is one of the crucial areas of a learner’s life. Some learners may not be bothered if they progress or not, however their parents are left with great distress if their children do not perform well. Multiple factors come to plat when it comes to academic achievement of a learner, which is used to be considered if one wants to perform better. The performance of students at school and university is influence by the (1) family’s support (moral and economic), (2) the teacher’s skills, qualification and guidance, and (3) the student’s self-profile such as self-efficacy, commitment level, self-discipline and life objectives (Diaz, 2003; Gianzero, 1999; Hijaz and Naqvi, 2006)

When young people fail at school, it is most often not because they are stupid, lazy or psychologically incapable. Rather, it is because they have not been taught the developmentally appropriate tools, skills and strategies every child needs to succeed in school and in life. (H.N.Mbaneleka, 2012)

Henderson & Mapp (2002) in their book entitled A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement found that “parent and community involvement that is linked to student learning has a greater effect on achievement than more general forms of involvement. Parents should take advantage of parent-child activities and practice parent-child responsive strategies. Parents must provide a supportive home learning environment to promote student’s success. Parents who set high standards and have high aspirations for their children are more likely to have high-achieving children.

The interest of the researchers is to find the factor(s) that significantly affect(s) the academic achievement of the dean’s listers of Caraga State University. Through this, the other students who are not dean’s listers will be aware in how to make their studies better.

Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of the study is to find out the factors affecting the Academic Achievement among Dean’s Listers of Caraga State University.

Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following specific questions:

1. What is the profile of the dean’s listers in terms of parent’s educational attainment and parents’ monthly income?

2. What is the level of influence of the factors in terms of learning styles, teacher’s competence, study habits and learning environment?

3. Is there a factor that significantly affects the academic achievement of the dean’s listers?

Results and Discussion

The profile of the dean’s listers in terms of parent’s educational attainment and parents’ monthly income:

Figure 1. Educational Attainment of the Respondents’ Fathers

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Figure 2.Educational Attainment of the Respondents' Mothers

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As depicted from the table above, most of the respondents’ fathers attained at most college level only. In fact, only five fathers which covers about 6.4% (sum up the percentages of the last two rows) were able to attain college graduate (with 5.1%) and reach graduate and post graduate studies (with 1.3%). Sad to note that, the complement of this which is about 94.9% (subtracting 5.1% from 100%) constitutes those fathers who were not able to finish their studies until college.

The same observation is seen here to that of the respondents’ fathers’ educational attainment. That is, most of the respondents’ mothers attained at most college level only. Cumulatively, about 92.3% of the mothers were not able to finish their studies until college. Forty-four and nine tenths percent of which are those mothers attaining only high school graduate. This is followed by the college level category.

Figure 3. Parent’s Monthly Income

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The table above shows that 42.3% of the respondents’ parents have income that ranges from 5,001php to 10,000php. Evidently, this category is the most frequent. This category is then followed by the category 10,001php to 15,000php comprising 25.6% of the total sample size. Noticeably, about 18% of the parents have income exceeding 15,000php. This includes about 14 parents (see the last two rows of the table). Obviously, this number is very small compared to the cumulative frequency of those parents with income 15,000 and less.

The level of the factors in terms of learning styles, teacher’s competence, study habits and learning environment;

Table 1. Factors that affects the Learning Styles

ITEMS MEAN VERBAL INTERPRETATION
VISUAL LEARNING
1. If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I watch someone show me how 3.6795 Often 
2. When I read, I often find that I visualize what I am reading in my mind’s eye. 3.9359  Often
3. When I asked to give directions, I see the actual places in my mind as I say them or prefer to draw them. 3.7821  Often
4. If I am unsure how to spell a word, I write it in order to determine if it looks right. 4.2564  Always
5. When I write, I am concerned how neat and well-spaced my letters and words appear. 3.6538 Often 
7. I prefer teachers who use the board or overhead projector while they lecture. 4.0256 Often
8. When try to concentrate, I have a difficult time when there is a lot of clutter or movement in the room. 3.6795  Often
9. When solving a problem, I write or draw diagrams to see it. 3.6538  Often
10. When given written instructions on how to build something, I read them silently and try to visualize how the parts will fit together. 3.9872  Often
11. To keep occupied while waiting, I look around, stare, or read. 3.9103  Often
12. If I had to verbally describe something to another person, I would be brief because I do not like to talk at length. 3.4103  Often
13. If someone were verbally describing something to me, I would try to visualize what she was saying. 3.9103  Often
14. When trying to recall names, I remember faces but forget names. 4.0256 Often
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.8393 Often 
AUDITORY STYLE
1. If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I hear someone tell me how. 3.6026 Often 
2. When I read, I often find that I read out a loud or hear the words inside my head. 3.7692 Often 
3. When I asked to give directions, I have no difficulty in giving them verbally. 3.3846 Sometimes
4. If I am unsure how to spell a word, I spell it out in order to determine if it sounds right. 3.7308 Often 
5. When I write, I often say the letters and words to myself. 3.5000 Often 
6. If I had to remember a list of items, I would remember it best if I said them over and over to myself. 3.6282 Often 
7. I prefer teachers who talk with a lot of expressions. 3.8077 Often 
8. When try to concentrate, I have a difficult time when there is a lot of noise in the room. 3.8333 Often 
9. When solving a problem, I talk myself through it. 3.6795  Often
10. When given written instructions on how to build something, I read them out loud and talk to myself as I put the parts together. 3.5000  Often
11. To keep occupied while waiting, I talk or listen to others. 3.6923  Often
12. If I had to verbally describe something to another person, I would go into great details because I like to talk. 3.5641  Often
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.6410  Often
KINESTHETIC STYLE
1. If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I try to do it myself. 3.9872  Often
2. When I read, I often find that I forget and try to feel the content. 3.3462 Sometimes 
3.When I asked to give directions, I have to point or move my body as I give them. 3.6282  Often
4. If I am unsure how to spell a word, I write it in order to determine if it feels right. 4.0513  Often
5. When I write, I push hand on my pen or pencil and can feel the flow of the words or letters as I for them. 3.3846 Sometimes
6. If I had to remember a list of items, I would remember it best if I moved around and used my fingers to name each item. 3.5000  Often
7. I prefer teachers who use hands-on activities. 3.9744  Often
8. When try to concentrate, I have a difficult time when I have to sit still for any length of time. 3.2179  Sometimes
9. When solving a problem, I use my entire body or move objects to help me think. 3.0769 Sometimes
10. When given written instructions on how to build something, I try to put the parts together first and read later. 3.3462 Sometimes
11. To keep occupied while waiting, I walk around, manipulate things with my hands, or move/shake my feet as I sit. 3.4487 Often 
12. If I had to verbally describe something to another person, I would gesture and move around while talking. 3.3590 Often 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.5267 Often 
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.6690 Often 

Table 2. LEARNING STYLES

CATEGORY MEAN SCORE VERBAL INTERPRETATION
VISUAL LEARNING 3.8393 Often
AUDITORY STYLE 3.6410 Often
KINESTHETIC STYLE 3.5267 Often
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.6690 Often

As reflected in the table above, there are three categories of learning styles; visual, auditory and kinesthetic style. Each category was tested separately with various indicators. The breakdown of each category is placed in the appendices in which the actual statements of each category were reflected there together with its weighted mean and verbal interpretation. The first category was visual learning style which got a mean score of 3.8393 which falls under the verbal interpretation of often. Twelve indicators got the verbal interpretation of often which signifies that the extent in using these techniques was of high preference. Only one indicator got the verbal interpretation which falls on always that means the respondents always prefer to use this in connection with their learning. The second category was auditory learning style which has a mean score of 3.6410 that has a verbal interpretation of often. All the indicators under the auditory learning style except the third one got the interpretation of often that means that almost all of the statements suggest were moderately use by the respondents to do things related with their academics. On the other hand, the only indicator that falls on sometimes signifies less utilization of the technique. The third category is kinesthetic learning style which got a mean score of 3.5267 that falls under the verbal interpretation often. Seven indicators got a verbal interpretation of often that signifies the degree of their utilization of those techniques was high and five indicators falls under sometimes which shows that it is less preferred by the respondents. The over-all mean score is 3.6690 that got a verbal interpretation of often. The results show that there is no dominant style that was being used by the respondents. The learning styles were evenly utilized by the respondents. They do not have any significant pattern of learning style utilization with regards to the preference of learning style. The respondents select the learning style that fits to them and to the kind of learning activity that they have.

Table 3. Factors Affecting Teacher’s Competence

ITEMS MEAN VERBAL INTERPRETATION
TEACHING SKILLS
Shows evidence of mastery of the subject matter. 3.9231 Very Satisfactory
Provides varied learning experience. 3.8718   Very Satisfactory 
Demonstrate sensitivity to student’s ability to interpret basic skills. 3.7051   Very Satisfactory 
Selects instructional materials and aids students in achieving the objective of the day’s activity. 3.7051   Very Satisfactory 
Prepares instructional materials and aids students in achieving the objective of the day’s activity. 3.6410   Very Satisfactory 
Utilizes instructional materials and aids students in achieving the objective of the day’s activity. 3.5769 Very Satisfactory
Demonstrates variation in procedures, techniques, teaching strategies or methods. 3.7692   Very Satisfactory 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.7418 Very Satisfactory
GUIDANCE SKILLS
Ability to understand the learner based on the principles of human growth and development. 3.5256   Very Satisfactory 
Shows interest in students problems and need and help meet them. 3.5385   Very Satisfactory 
Provides the maximum involvement of students in the learning activities. 3.7436   Very Satisfactory 
Stimulates students to elicit positive and active interaction. 3.6667   Very Satisfactory 
Complements students to elicit positive and active interaction. 3.7564   Very Satisfactory 
Makes herself available to students even beyond official teaching hours. 3.5513   Very Satisfactory 
Enhance students’ self-esteem through recognition of their abilities. 3.5897   Very Satisfactory 
Helps students develop self- discipline in and thru the learning process. 3.7821   Very Satisfactory 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.6442   Very Satisfactory 
EVALUATION SKILLS
Uses accurate criteria for the accurate evaluation of individual performance. 3.8718   Very Satisfactory 
Interprets evaluation results skillfully. 3.8077   Very Satisfactory 
Utilizes evaluation results as a basis for improving instruction. 3.8077   Very Satisfactory 
Prepares the test instrument carefully. 3.9231   Very Satisfactory 
Administers test effectively. 3.8846   Very Satisfactory 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.8590   Very Satisfactory 
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Designs learning that promote healthy exchange/confrontations. 3.7051   Very Satisfactory 
Implement learning that promotes healthy exchange/confrontations. 3.7949   Very Satisfactory 
Disciplines class, maintains cleanliness and orderliness. 3.8590 Very Satisfactory  
Keeps records of students and submit reports promptly. 4.0385   Very Satisfactory 
Starts learning activities promptly. 3.8333   Very Satisfactory 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.8462   Very Satisfactory 
EFFICIENCY
Comes to class on time. 3.8077   Very Satisfactory 
Returns test papers, project results and other requirements submitted by the students. 3.5385 Very Satisfactory  
Manages the class smoothly. 3.6154   Very Satisfactory 
Follows schedule of activities as agreed. 3.7692   Very Satisfactory 
Spends hours in class productively and as utilize the time allotted. 3.9103   Very Satisfactory 
CATEGORY MEAN SCORE 3.7282   Very Satisfactory 
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.7639   Very Satisfactory 

TEACHER'S COMPETENCE

CATEGORY MEAN SCORE VERBAL INTERPRETATION
TEACHING SKILLS 3.7418 Very Satisfactory
GUIDANCE SKILLS 3.6442 Very Satisfactory
EVALUATION SKILLS 3.8590 Very Satisfactory
CLASSROOM MANGEMENT 3.8462 Very Satisfactory
EFFICIENCY 3.7282 Very Satisfactory
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.7639 Very Satisfactory

Table 3 shows the results about teachers’ competence. There are factors that were considered under this category which are teaching skills, guidance skills, evaluation skills, classroom management and teachers’ efficiency. The indicators in each factor are in the appendices with its weighted mean and verbal interpretation. Only the over-all mean of each factor is placed here for the purpose of analysis. The first factor is teaching skills which have a mean score of 3.7418 which signifies very satisfactory. It implies that the teachers demonstrates mastery in his field and is skillful in the usage and preference of techniques and strategies in teaching. The second one is guidance skills which have a weighted mean score of 3.6442 that falls on the scope of very satisfactory. It means that the teachers’ are highly sensitive to their students’ needs, highly mindful of their students potentials and limitations and do promote a good learning environment. The third one is evaluation skills which have a weighted mean score of 3.8590 that has a verbal interpretation of very satisfactory. It shows that the teachers’ do have criteria for effective assessment and has a skill in interpreting the results effectively. The fourth factor is classroom management. It has a weighted mean score of 3.8462 which falls on very satisfactory. It signifies that the teachers’ keeps the control in a classroom and have records on students’ attendance and performance. The last factor for this category is efficiency which has a weighted mean score of 3.7282 which is very satisfactory. This shows that the teachers’ are efficient with regards to its time management skills, attitudes showcased in the class and its organization. The over-all result for this category falls on very satisfactory which infers that on these five factors the teachers’ exhibit a desirable competence, performance and ability in his profession. Moreover, the result depicts that the respondents observes the practices that their teachers’ take into big consideration as significant in their teaching carrier.

Table 4. Factors Affecting the Study Habits

ITEMS MEAN VERBAL INTERPRETATION
Do you study outside of class each day? 3.1923 Sometimes 
Do you keep up to date in your assignments? 3.8846 Often 
Do you review regularly what was covered in each course? 3.2692 Sometimes 
Do you write down all assignments for each class in a special section of the notebook? 3.2821 Sometimes 
Do you survey a chapter (check the headings, introduction, and summary) before reading it in detail? 3.4615 Often 
As you read an assignment, do you have in mind questions that you are actually trying to answer? 3.8462 Often 
Do you try to get the meaning of important new terms as you read the chapter? 4.0000 Often 
Do you keep a well-organized notebook with sections for assignments, vocabulary, and lecture notes? 3.2692 Sometimes 
Do you keep a calendar for listing the due dates of major assignments? 3.2051 Sometimes 
Do you know what will be covered on each exam? 4.1154 Often 
Do you make specific preparations for exams? 3.9359 Often 
Do you study what you get wrong on a quiz or test? 3.7051  Often
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.5972 Often 

STUDY HABITS

  MEAN SCORE VERBAL INTERPRETATION
STUDY HABITS 3.5972 Often

Table 4 presents the over-all result for study habits. Certain indicators were used to determine if it affects the achievement of the respondents or not. The statements use to test this factor is located on the appendices, what is reflected here is just the over-all result. Seven indicators got a verbal interpretation of often which denotes that the respondents use this certain study habits more often than the other study habits. Five indicators falls under sometimes which infers that it is rarely utilized by the respondents. The over-all result got a mean of 3.5972 which is often. As a whole, it shows that the deans’ listers do employ some study habits in order to keep track with their academics.

Table 5. Factors Affecting the Learning Environment

ITEMS MEAN VERBAL INTERPRETATION
Most students are pleasant to teachers. 3.4872  Agree
I receive encouragement from colleagues. 4.0256 Agree 
Teachers discuss teaching methods and strategies with each other. 3.7436 Agree 
The school mission statement and its associated goals are well understood by school staff. 3.7564 Agree
Decisions about the running of this school are usually made by the principal or a small group of teachers. 3.4103 Agree 
It is difficult to change anything in this school. 3.5000 Agree 
The school or department library includes an adequate selection of books and periodicals. 3.6538 Agree
There is constant pressure to keep working. 3.7179 Agree 
Most students are helpful and cooperative to teachers. 3.3590 Agree 
I feel accepted by other teachers. 3.8205 Agree 
Teachers avoid talking with each other about teaching and learning. 2.9872 Neither A or D 
The organization of this school reflects its goals. 3.9103 Agree 
I have to refer even small matters to a senior member of staff for a final answer. 3.6026 Agree
Teachers are encouraged to be innovative in this school. 4.0513  Agree
The supply of equipment and resources is inadequate. 3.3205 Neither A or D 
Teachers have to work long hours to complete all their work. 3.6923  Agree
There are many disruptive, difficult students in this school. 3.5128  Agree
I am ignored by other teachers. 2.7308 Neither A or D 
Staff meetings are dominated by administrative matters rather than teaching and learning issues. 3.5641  Agree
Teachers regularly refer to the mission of the school when addressing school issues. 3.5641  Agree
OVER-ALL MEAN SCORE 3.5705  Agree

LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

  MEAN SCORE VERBAL INTERPRETATION
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 3.5705 Agree

Table 5 shows the result for learning environment and its interpretation. Just like the factors above, its detailed statements are still on the appendices. There are twenty indicators that were analyzed to produce reliable results. Among the twenty indicators only three indicators got the verbal interpretation of neither agree or disagree. It implies that the respondents cannot make a clear stand regarding with this statements. The other indicators falls on agree in which they do come to an agreement about those statements on the learning environment. They come to agree that both positive and negative instances in their environment affect their achievement.

Is there a factor that significantly affects the academic achievement of the dean’s listers?

Table 6 Measures Of Association Between The Pre-Identified Factors And The Academic Achievement (Grades) Of The Respondent

Dependent Variable Independent Variable Correlation* P-Value** Intepretation***
Categories Sub-categories
Academic Achievements of Dean’s Listers Teachers’ Competence Teaching Skills -0.096 0.405 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Guidance Skills -0.019 0.869 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Evaluation Skills 0.109 0.342 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Classroom Management -0.06 0.601 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Efficiency -0.054 0.639 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Learning Styles Visual Learning 0.172 0.133 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Auditory Styles 0.056 0.623 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Kinesthetic Styles 0.091 0.427 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Study Habits 0.107 0.353 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.
Learning

Environment

0.129 0.26 Since p-\text{value}> \alpha , we accept Ho.

The correlation Coefficient used is the Spearman Correlation. **The hypotheses are tested at level of significance\alpha =0\text{.}\text{05}.

The table contains the independent variable, dependent variable, correlation, p-value and the interpretation. It shows the measure of association between the pre-determined factors and the academic achievement of the dean’s listers’. Each factor is tested independently and separately. The correlation on the sub-factors under the teaching competence, learning styles, study habits and learning environment strongly shows that they do not have any effect to the grades of the respondents because their p-values are all greater than\alpha =0\text{.}\text{05}. The table above suggests that none of the pre-identified factors are associated with the respondents’ academic achievement. More specifically, none of the pre-identified factors influence or affect the dean’s listers’ grades. It is signifies that the dean’s listers’ of Caraga State University do not largely consider those factors that makes or affects their grades. They do consider these factors as essential ones but these factors do not have a direct bearing towards their grades.

Conclusions

The results clearly depicts that the students’ study habit, learning style teachers’ competence and the learning environment has no influence to the achievement reached by the dean’s listers’.

On the other hand, it is still very important to make and to maintain these factors visible in the academic arena for a better learning and for a better outcome. The absence of these factors might affect the performances of the students’ in Caraga State University.

Recommendations

Based on the results and the findings of this study, certain points should be focused and given an appropriate attention as to how to improve the achievements of the students.

  1. Teacher must use different learning style in teaching students about the subject matter so that it will cater all the style that is dominant in a certain students.
  2. Teacher must not just keep the records of the students but also to submit reports promptly for the student to be aware of their records.
  3. Students must review regularly what was covered in their course as well as making specific preparations for the exams to receive positive results.
  4. Students must be aware of their rights inside the university to help them boost their confidence regarding the problems they might encounter.
  5. Students should know how to socialize with their peers not just for personal necessities but also for the lesson where they might have any difficulty in dealing with.

References

Balagot, S., et.al. (2008). “ Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles in Relation with the Academic Performance of 2nd year Students in Agusan National High School.”

Ganut, L. and Gementiza, B. (2006).” Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of the Science Class Students

of BCNHS Bayugan, Agusan del Sur.”

Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement”

Purita P. Bilbao, Brenda B. Corpuz, Avelina T. Llagas & Gloria G. Salandanan (2012). “The Teaching Profession”.