Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer
|Journal||Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies|
|Title||Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer|
|Keywords||audio system trainer, instructional technology, electronics|
|Chicago 16th||Santos, Arnold. "Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1, no. 1 (2014).|
|APA 6th||Santos, A. (2014). Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1(1).|
|MHRA||Santos, Arnold. 2014. 'Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer', Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.|
|MLA||Santos, Arnold. "Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1.1 (2014). Print.|
|Harvard||SANTOS, A. 2014. Development and Evaluation of an Audio System Trainer. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.|
Guided by the desire to contribute a little in the development of an innovative instructional technology for the teaching of electronics, this researcher constructed a prototype audio system trainer. Electronics teachers will find the instructional tool convenient and practical to use for visual instruction, laboratory activities and troubleshooting works in electronics. To support the functionality of the audio system trainer, the researcher developed a supplementary laboratory manual. The project whose production costs totaled fourteen thousand two hundred seventy two pesos and fifty centavos (Php 14,272.50) was finished in two weeks’ time. However, this amount is small if compared to the prices of commercially available instructional device developed for the same purpose. The completed project and the supplementary laboratory exercises were evaluated by selected technical faculty members of the College of Industrial Technology of the Bulacan State University, Bulacan Polytechnic College, University of Rizal System, and Lyceum of the Philippines University. Sampling technique as used in the study is both purposive and incidental. The prototype audio system trainer received an over-all mean rating of 4.62 which means that the project is highly acceptable on a set of criteria which includes – physical features, cost, function / operations, and durability. Furthermore, the supplementary laboratory exercises obtained a mean of 4.70 which could be interpreted that the respondents strongly agree on the validity of the manual.
With the advent of new technology, educational institutions are espousing the increase in the supply of instructional technologies designed to do everything from maximizing the efficiency of traditional educational procedures to the enhancement of the overall educational experiences in hopes of providing new and efficient means of teaching (Pare and Joordens, 2009). It is the design and implementation of these technological tools the proponent wishes to focus on studies like this, highlighting the potential that exists for using these tools, not only as powerful educational supplements, but also as powerful research instruments for better understanding technical education. With these new technologies, educators and researchers have a unique and powerful opportunity to conduct simulation lessons and laboratory-like research in a naturalistic environment.
Technological trainers are indispensable tools in the teaching of technical courses such as automotive, electronics and electrical technologies. Related studies have shown the benefits rendered by such teaching device. Among these are: 1) the use of trainers exposed students to more realistic experiences and situations; 2.) it clarifies and deepens students’ understanding of the concepts; 3.) it models to student concepts in terms of physical operations since laboratory experience is an experience in a place where one can see concepts in terms of physical objects and operations; 4.) it awakens students curiosity hence motivating them to experiment and find out how things operate.
In this study, the researcher constructed a prototype audio system trainer that was envisioned to effect quality classroom instruction for electronics. Furthermore, the project is aimed by the proponent to be a gadget of use for laboratory and troubleshooting works in electronics. Students of electronics will find the instructional tool convenient and practical to use in electronic circuit analysis and other applications. One of such applications is the radio and audio where students are to be exposed to a rather methodical technique in servicing radio receivers and other audio apparatuses.
The removal and soldering of the components into PCB requires too much time and is costly. But with the development of this prototype, installations will be facilitated and so is the replacement of active and passive component leads without the application of heat and soldering process by using separate terminals of serviceable and replaceable integrated circuit (IC) socket that were installed on the top of the acrylic sheets of every component units.
On the basis of the foregoing discussions, the researcher has thought of developing and fabricating a prototype Audio System Trainer.
Objectives Of The Study
This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of developing a prototype Audio System Trainer. The proposed teaching device was made out of locally available resources and materials.
Specifically, it sought to achieve the following objectives:
- Design and construct a prototype Audio System Trainer.
- Test the acceptability / functionality of the proposed teaching device.
- Revise the gadget based on the testing results to further improve its features and capabilities.
- Develop and evaluate activity sheets involving experiments using the developed audio system trainer.
Conceptual Model Of The Study
In the development of the audio system trainer, the researcher was guided by the conceptual model as shown in Figure 1. The paradigm below visually illustrates the model.
INPUT THROUGHPUT OUTPUT
Figure 1. Conceptual Model for the Development of the Audio System Trainer
The model above consists of three basic components which include input, throughput and output. The inputs consist of the tools and equipment, supplies and materials and the labor and cost necessary for the development of the project. The throughput includes the phases of designing, constructing, testing and revising. The output of the study is the Audio System Trainer.
The model below shows the second phase of the study which consists of the evaluation of the audio system trainer as to its acceptability and functionality, together with the validation of the supplementary laboratory exercises.
Figure 2. Conceptual Model for the Evaluation of the Project and Supplementary Laboratory Activities
Methods of Research Used
The descriptive and developmental methods of research were used for this study. The descriptive method of research involves gathering of information about the present existing condition. This method basically involves the identifying and defining of the problem, selecting appropriate sources of data, adopting appropriate techniques for data gathering, procedures, analyzing, describing and interpreting the data.
Developmental research, on the other hand is a research method that can provide practitioners with usable data. Its focus is on the design, development, and evaluation of instructional products and processes. This study could be described specifically as a project development because it is a creative development of a project based on a thorough determination of the present situation and the goals sought.
In order to measure the status of the event and its relation to the development of the study, such descriptive methods like questionnaire techniques, observations of previous projects on electronics and reading documents and previous studies on instrumentation were used. These data collecting techniques were used by the researcher to gather information needed in the development of the project, the prototype audio system trainer and its supplementary laboratory activity.
Respondents of the Study
Sampling method used in the study could be described as purposive and incidental because the choice of the sampling units has been affected by the availability of the instructors and time schedule of the researcher.
The respondents of the study are selected technical faculty members of the College of Industrial Technology of the Bulacan State University, Bulacan Polytechnic College, University of Rizal System and Lyceum of the Philippines University. They were purposively chosen because they have the capability to evaluate the Audio System Trainer and the developed laboratory activities. These instructors were asked to answer an evaluation form that determines the acceptability / functionality of the audio system trainer and the validity of the supplementary laboratory exercises.
Table 1 shows the list of respondents in the study (sample size) taken from the population. Their responses composed the data used for the data analysis in the latter part of the study. Each respondent was given an evaluation form to accomplish. The table below shows the distribution.
Table 1. Respondents of the Study
|Bulacan State University||12||6|
|Bulacan Polytechnic College||3||3|
|University of Rizal System||15||15|
|Lyceum of the Philippines University||3||3|
The researcher considered various ways on how to gather and collect the appropriate data needed in the development of the audio system trainer. Data is an essential part in conducting the study and in developing the project. The collected information serves as the foundation or the building block of the instructional gadget and the developed laboratory activities.
The researcher used evaluation questionnaires to determine the respondents’ perception on the acceptability and functionality of the Audio System Trainer and the validity of the laboratory activities. The study adopted the research instruments used by Galita (2002) and Macayan (2003) in their studies. The questionnaires consist of 11 (for the Audio System Trainer) and 5 (laboratory exercises) criteria, all answerable by a Likert type scale of 1 to 5. These research instruments were shown by the researcher to his thesis adviser and critic for face validation.
To evaluate the acceptability and functionality of the project, the study used a set of criteria which includes physical features, function and operations, cost, and durability.
To support the functionality of the Audio System Trainer, the researcher developed a set of laboratory activities that uses the trainer as its primary tool; hence, the need for the developed worksheets to be validated by the experts in the field. Other than the researcher’s adviser and critic, the supplementary manual was also presented to the same group who evaluated the trainer on its acceptability, this time to evaluate the supplementary laboratory activities for their validity. The suggestions and recommendations by these experts were considered in the improvement of the worksheets.
Before the evaluation, the respondents were treated to a demonstration on the usage and actual operations of the trainer. Furthermore, they were provided with a copy of the laboratory activities that use the trainer as a primary tool during activity.
The data gathered by the researchers from the respondents were tabulated and analyzed to determine the acceptability of the audio system trainer and the validity of the laboratory activities.
The weighted mean for each of the criteria in the instrument was computed to determine the acceptability of the trainer as perceived by the respondents. The scale below was used to interpret the computed weighted mean for each indicator.
|4.21 – 5.0
3.41 – 4.20
2.61 – 3.40
1.81 – 2.60
1.0 – 1.80
Similarly, to interpret the weighted mean in the various criteria set by the researcher to determine the validity of the supplementary laboratory activities, a scaling scheme was used. The table below shows the scale used to interpret the computed weighted mean for each indicator.
|4.21 – 5. 0
3.41 – 4.20
2.61 – 3. 40
1.81 - 2.60
1.0 – 1.80
Results And Discussions
Evaluation of the Project and Supplementary Laboratory Activities
Part of the study is the evaluation of the completed audio system trainer and the supplementary laboratory activities.
Table 2 below shows the summary of the evaluation and the mean rating in each criterion on the acceptability of the project together with the corresponding interpretation.
Table 2. Summary of the Ratings Given by Respondents on the Acceptability of the Project
|Criteria and Indicators||Rating|
|a. Workmanship||4.81||Highly Acceptable|
|b. Labeling of parts well presented||4.67||Highly Acceptable|
|c. Accessibility of circuit sub-assemblies||4.85||Highly Acceptable|
|a. Material Costs||4.63||Highly Acceptable|
|b. Development Costs||4.52||Highly Acceptable|
|a. Easy to operate / User-friendly||4.81||Highly Acceptable|
|b. Low maintenance needs||4.74||Highly Acceptable|
|c. Audio System Trainer services its purpose||4.70||Highly Acceptable|
|d. Vividness / Clarity of Sound Output||4.30||Highly Acceptable|
|a. Quality of Material Used||4.33||Highly Acceptable|
|b. Rigidity of Construction||4.63||Highly Acceptable|
|OVERALL MEAN||4.62||Highly Acceptable|
Table 3 shows the summary of the evaluation and the mean rating in each indicator on the validity of laboratory exercises together with the corresponding interpretation.
Table 3. Summary of the Ratings Given by Respondents on the Validity of Laboratory Exercises
|1. The experiments from the supplementary manual adequately represent the objectives of specified lessons of audio electronics subject.||4.74||Strongly Agree|
|2. The questions in the evaluation component of each laboratory worksheet pose challenge and are suitable to the comprehension level of the clientele||4.78||Strongly Agree|
|3. The manual features clear presentations and illustrations of the task to be performed.||4.67||Strongly Agree|
|4. The application of Audio System Trainer is maximized.||4.52||Strongly Agree|
Computations reveal that the supplementary laboratory exercises obtained mean ratings of 4.78, 4.74, 4.78, 4.67, and 4.52 on the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth indicators, respectively. The over-all average mean rating is 4.70. This implies that the respondents strongly agreed on the validity of the worksheets.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were deduced:
1. An Audio System Trainer can be developed and constructed using locally available resources and materials.
2. The prototype trainer is highly acceptable / functional based on the evaluation of experts.
3. The validity of the developed supplementary activity sheets is strongly agreed by the respondents.
Based on the aforementioned findings and conclusions, the following recommendations were cited:
1. School administrators should encourage the development of other related instructional devices to further improve the teaching - learning in electronics.
2. Technical schools should provide additional budgetary allocations / funds for the development of other improvised trainer.
3. Additional laboratory activities should be developed to demonstrate the functionality of the trainer in the teaching of basic concepts in audio system.
4. Other studies should be undertaken to test the effectiveness of the trainer in the development of students’ conceptual understanding on audio system.
5. It should be fabricated and made as an income generating project of the school.
The researcher appreciates the support given by Dr. Dolly P. Maroma, Dean of the College of Industrial Technology, Dr. Emerlita Naguiat, Director of the University Research and Development Office, Dr. Danilo Hilario, Vice President for Planning, Research and Extension, Dr. Mariano C. De Jesus, President of the Bulacan State University and Dr. Edgardo M. Santos, editor of this paper.
Andaya, Floro T. AC Machine Circuit Trainer: Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina, Metro Manila, 2002.
Bernaldez, Raul R. Industrial Automation Trainer: A Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2003.
Calderon, Jose F. and Gonzales Expectacion C. Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, 1993.
Cox, James. Fundamentals of Linear Electronics. New York: Thomson Learning, 2002
Custodio, Pedro C. The Development of Multipurpose Transformer: Technical Feasibility Study. Bulacan State University, Malolos, Bulacan, 2004.
Fabila, Gilbert L. A logic Gates Kit as a teaching Device in Physics: a Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2000.
Galita, Warlito M. WMG Linear Circuit Trainer. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2002.
Gates Earl D. Introduction to Electronics. United States of America: Thomson Learning , 2001
Journal of Science education and Technology, Vol. XVIII No. 6, December, 2009.
Journal Forum, CD127 Paper No. 7837, October, 2009.
Lopez, Carmelo Jesus C. Cellphone Operated Switch for Electrical Appliances as Instructional Device for Electrical and Electronics Students: Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2004.
Macayan Christopher M. Intercom Wiring Board Trainer, Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2003.
Marquez, Ferdinand V. Low Cost Fire Alarm System: Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2003.
Petruzella, Frank D. Essential of Electronics. New York: Glencoe/Mc GraW Hill Companies, 2001.
Quintal, Saturnino N. Automotive Body Electrical System Trainer: A Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2002.
Taclobos, Melchor G. Industrial Motor Control Trainer: A Technical Feasibility Study. Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Marikina City, 2000.
Tirol, Benjo U. Fundamentals of Digital Electronics. Manila: Electronics Hobbyists Publishing house., 2002.
Valerio, Wenceslao B. Development of a Multifunctional Test Jig Equipment for Electronic Circuit. Technological University of the Philippines, Manila, 2004.