Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies
Title Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics
Author(s) Saldon-Eder, Marylene Saldon-Eder, Paul Rojas, Mary Grace Empasis, Love Jhoye Raboy
Volume 1
Issue 1
Year 2014
Pages 37-44
DOI 10.21016/ICEPSS.2014.14018
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Computer aided instruction, interactive learning environments, Educational technology
Chicago 16th Saldon-Eder, Marylene Saldon-Eder, Paul Rojas, Mary Grace Empasis, Love Jhoye Raboy. "Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1, no. 1 (2014).
APA 6th Saldon-Eder, M. S., Rojas, P., Empasis, M. G., Raboy, L. J. (2014). Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1(1).
MHRA Saldon-Eder, Marylene Saldon-Eder, Paul Rojas, Mary Grace Empasis, Love Jhoye Raboy. 2014. 'Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics', Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.
MLA Saldon-Eder, Marylene Saldon-Eder, Paul Rojas, Mary Grace Empasis, Love Jhoye Raboy. "Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics." Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies 1.1 (2014). Print.
Harvard SALDON-EDER, M. S., ROJAS, P., EMPASIS, M. G., RABOY, L. J. 2014. Computer Aided Instruction For Preschoolers In Mathematics. Conference Proceedings of Educational Paradigm, Systems and Strategies, 1.

Abstract

Computers are increasingly a part of pre-schoolers to professional lives. The use of multimedia in education has significantly changed people’s learning processes.  Computer technology holds promise for improving student performance and quality of teaching education program at all levels. Today, development has been rapid and technology has been acknowledged as an additional teaching tool. Results from a number of research studies indicate that appropriately designed multimedia instruction enhances students’ learning performance in mathematics, and literacy. The purpose of the present paper was to discuss research avenues employing computers as a learning tool and to analyse the results obtained by this method at the pre-schoolers learning level.

Introduction

Background of the Study

Computers have become an important tool in the world today. Computer technology holds promise for improving pupil performance and quality of teaching education program at all levels. Today, development has been rapid and technology has been acknowledged as an additional teaching tool (Slavin & Lake, 2008). Pupils and teachers are under monumental pressure to achieve greater success in their classrooms. To ensure that achievement is reached many low-performing schools is provided for training and materials to strengthen their programs. The combination of demand and pressure push teachers to seek new materials, resources and ways to teach all children in the classrooms easily. Teachers are hopeful that innovative ways of teaching will help pupils learn and motivate them to excel and increase pupils performance on standardized testing. Teachers are incorporating technology as part of their routine to make content lessons more engaging. One of these new methods is Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) (Macaruso & Rodman, 2011).

Mathematics and computer are both important in today’s life as they open the gate of ample opportunities in this modern world. Mathematics is widely used in computers both in hardware and software. Computer helps in improving the knowledge of mathematics. Computer helps in making classroom teaching lively. CAI works as a change and increases the curiosity of pupils and they can learn interestingly without any difficulty. It also provides a wide range of experience, provides motivation, individual instruction and interactive learning (Ramani and Patadia, 2012). Prior research shows that computer assisted technology has positive effects on pupils learning and achievement. Technology engages in any academic subject. Pupils’ using extra mathematics practice on the computer was often the key factor in increasing pupil’s achievement. Many instances showed pupil’s just needed extra help and practice to make connections (Patterson 2008, Smith 2006).

The primary purpose of computer aided instruction is to supplement strategies on the academic achievement in mathematics, to present visualization of the images and to provide a high extent of mental skills of preschoolers. Thus, stated by Billones, 2014 from St. Therese Learning Center, that the most important years of learning are begun at birth. Preschool is the foundation of learning to children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education, usually between the ages of three and five depending on the jurisdiction. This study of computer-aided instruction can be a learning paradigm in preschool to enhance their cognitive, linguistic skills and problem solving. It also brings a several potential benefits as a teaching-learning medium.

Methodology

Analysis

Based on the interview, teachers found no problem in handling their pupil’s attention, but most likely find it difficult of how these pupils retain their lessons after the discussion. According to the respondents, the only reason why this occurs is because of lack in graphical presentation of the teachers towards the pupils. In this matter, the teachers suggest the proponents to focus in developing a system in mathematics that could be able to help their pupils in retaining lessons and would be help them in preparing lessons.

The researchers learned that the problem was focused in mathematics discussion process, in which visualization of objects that helps pupils in retaining the lessons. It was then decided to provide a Computer –aided Instruction for Preschool Mathematics that shall address these issues.

Design of the Database

The proponents developed a database name dbcai where the data inputted by the users are accurately stored. The database composed of 10 tables namely; exam, exam_items, lecture, lecture_media, level, media, pupil, pupil_exam_answers, teacher, teacher_level.

Tool used in Designing a System

Figure 1 Context Diagram

In Figure 1 shows how the system will receive and send data flows to the external entities involved. It also illustrates the general flow of the system. The administrator, the teacher and the pupil are the users of the system. The administrator can add both teacher and pupil, as well as adding new lessons and exams. The administrator can also access the master file of the teacher and pupil especially on viewing the grades of the pupil. The teacher has the privilege to add pupil and to view pupil’s profile under only in her advisory. She can also add new lessons and exams. The pupil can view the lesson tutorials and can take the given activity. The pupil can also view their grades after they take the exam.

Development of CAI

Identification of built in Libraries for developing CAI

The proponents develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that is user-friendly and easy to understand, especially the forms where data is to be inputted. They had settled on using PHP Hypertext Pre-processors as its front end, CodeIgniter framework, MySQL as its back end, Bootsrap3 for the designing admin and teacher’s form, and Adobe Photoshop for designing the graphical form of pupil.

PHP stands for Hypertext Pre-processor is an open source, server-side, HTML embedded scripting language used to create dynamic Web Pages.

CodeIgniter is an Application Development Framework - a toolkit - for people who build web sites using PHP. Its goal is to enable you to develop projects much faster than you could if you were writing code from scratch, by providing a rich set of libraries for commonly needed tasks, as well as a simple interface and logical structure to access these libraries. CodeIgniter lets you creatively focus on your project by minimizing the amount of code needed for a given task.

MYSQL is a free open source database program. It is often used for website applications and in web site design. It can be used to create and manipulate information contained in databases by adding, removing, and modifying information in the database.

Creation of the database

The proponents developed a database name dbcai where the data inputted by the users are accurately stored. The database composed of 10 tables namely; exam, exam_items, lecture, lecture_media, level, media, pupil, pupil_exam_answers, teacher, teacher_level.

Testing and Debugging

In order to ensure accuracy and workability of the program, testing has been conducted.During testing, some errors have been encountered. Debugging has been made in order to address these problems.

Evaluation of the system

The proponents settled in using a checklist for a guide to meet the need of the preschool pupils and to address their problems. They also prepared an evaluation form to the teachers and parents of the pupils to test the functionalities, design, performance and the effectiveness of the system to the users. They checked if the pre-schoolers can learn interactively with the lessons that were presented with facts and able to have a recap on what they have just learned by taking up the quizzes. The accuracy of the pupils’ performances after they took the activity will be verified. The functionality of the system in adding pupils and teachers’ information, lessons and exam will also be checked if it was successfully saved in the database.

Results And Discussion

Design of the system

Analysis

The proponents designed a system that has an audio and video presentation to address the problem of the pupil in retaining lesson. They also developed a system that could easily update lesson to lessen the time of the teacher in preparing lesson. They have also come up to develop a system that is user-friendly and easy to understand so thus creating a system that is age appropriate.

Design of the Database

The proponents created a database named dbcai composed of 10 tables namely; exam, exam_items, lecture, lecture_media, level, media, pupil, pupil_exam_answers, teacher, teacher_level.

Development of the Database

Identification of built in Libraries for CAI

The proponent developed a system using PHP Hypertext Pre – Processor because it is an open source, server – side, HTML embedded scripting language used to create dynamic Web pages. CodeIgniter to develop projects much faster than writing code from scratch, by providing a rich set of libraries for commonly needed tasks, as well as a simple interface and logical structure to access these libraries. MySQL It can be used to create and manipulate information contained in databases by adding, removing, and modifying information in the database. Twitter – Bootsrap3 and Photoshop Cs6 for easy graphic Designing of the pupils form.

Creation of the Database

Figure 2 shows the results of the database that the proponents created named dbcai composed of 10 tables namely; exam, exam_items, lecture, lecture_media, level, media, pupil, pupil_exam_answers, teacher, teacher_level.

Figure 2. Database Storage

Figure 3 illustrates how the Lessons appear in the system. It is the page where the lesson that has been saved in the database displayed, where the user could select which lesson they would choose.

Figure 3. Screenshot of showing lesson

Figure 4 shows on how to View the Lessons in the system. This page shows a video presentation of a lesson which the pupil had chosen in the previous page (figure 4)

Figure 4. Screenshot of viewing lesson

Figure 5. shows on how the Activity of the pupils viewed in the system. In this page where the activity that has been saved in the database displayed, where the user could select which activity they would take.

Figure 5. Resulting screen of the activities of the pupils

Figure 6 illustrates how the activities being selected by the pupil in the system. This page shows an activity which the pupil had chosen in the previous page, see figure 4.1.3 the pupil could start answering the activity which had a next and previous button for another questions, after the pupil answers all the question a submit button will appear. It also has a button for audio presentation for the question.

Figure 6. Resulting screen of the Activity selected by the pupil

Evaluation of the system

Based on the data gathered, in uploading videos and images, as well as updating and retrieving of data and the other functionalities of the CAI 15 out of 15 respondents who were the teacher and the parents of the pupils were very satisfied with the system. One of the respondents answered that she is satisfied in organization of the lesson and activities. In its total tally, 98% of the respondents were very satisfied in the system in terms of its functionality and performance.

Conclusion And Recommendation

ConclusionThe proponents, therefore concluded that Computer Aided Instruction has functioned properly. It is a great help for teachers to increase their work productivity in which they saved time and effort in preparing their lessons. It has become a timely supplement teaching and learning mathematics become more fun and effective. CAI also helped preschoolers learn interactively with the lessons that were presented and were able to recap on what they have just learned. CAI can also provide the pupils with a more flexible, creative and entertaining environment for their learning experiences.

Recommendation

It is highly recommended for St. Therese Learning Center (where pilot testing has been done) to implement this Computer Aided Instruction for Preschool Mathematics. It will lessen the teachers’ preparation of the lessons and will satisfy the needs of the pupils. It is also recommended that the users of the system must familiarize themselves with it, in order to maximize all its functionalities. Data should also be carefully inputted to enhance information accuracy.

For the future researchers, the proponents recommend to put an animated display in 3D to enhance visuals, to add a parents’ corner where the parents and the teachers can discuss the results of the pupils and to include the computation in percentage regarding the performance of the pupils’. Moreover, it is highly recommended that Computer Aided Instruction be online to make it portable so that users can access the lessons anytime, anywhere.

References

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Baguhin, J.E., Pescador, A.M., Salva,L.A., Balabat, A.C., An Interactive Courseware for Preschooler of Liceo de Cagayan University, Advancing Information Technology Research, vol.3, College of Information Technology, Liceo de Cagayan University, Cagayan de Oro City, March 2012.

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